Ecosystèmes Tropicaux
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1. Et si l'écologie n'était plus une science? - RFI

1. Et si l'écologie n'était plus une science? - RFI | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
1. Et si l'écologie n'était plus une science?
RFI
L'écologie avait une ambition : découvrir des lois universelles expliquant le fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Mais elle n'a pas trouvé la formule magique.
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Ecosystèmes Tropicaux
Veille sur les écosystèmes tropicaux. Réalisée par Agroparistech - centre de Montpellier - A. Filatre
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Redéfinir la forêt pour mieux la protéger

Redéfinir la forêt pour mieux la protéger | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
La journée internationale des forêts offre une tribune aux ONG pour appeler la FAO à revoir sa définition de la forêt pour mettre fin à des activités potentiellement écocides.
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Transformations agricoles et agroalimentaires - Entre écologie et capitalisme - CIRAD

Transformations agricoles et agroalimentaires - Entre écologie et capitalisme : L’ouvrage synthétise des recherches récentes sur l’évolution de l’agriculture et de l’alimentation dans la dynamique du capitalisme. Il s’appuie sur des approches peu connues en France comm
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Soil carbon 4 per mille | World Agroforestry Centre

The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources.
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ScienceDirect

Publication date: July 2017
Source:Forest Policy and Economics, Volume 80
Author(s): José Carlos Orihuela
This environmental history exposes the main role of the entrepreneurs of environmentality in the assembling of the political economy of nature. Environmentality studies have not told us much about the champions of the green state and how do they succeed in forging new discourses, technologies and practices of forest governance. Discovering nature, embedded in professional networks and economic interests, conditioned by historical contingency, a handful of institutional entrepreneurs collided and ended up building willful alliances to translate the rising global paradigm of participatory forest governance into a specific case. That the encounter of domestic and transnational groups of forest bureaucrats, tropical biologists, nature enthusiasts, eco-tourism entrepreneurs, activist anthropologists and grassroots leaders produced a participatory protected area, friendly towards indigenous peoples rights and forest-based economic development, can only be fully understood when looking at agency in its specific human-ecological context. At Tambopata, nature, economic development and indigeneity, and the governmentalities associated to them, ended up redefined within the process.
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PROIntensAfrica : construire un partenariat de recherche entre Europe et Afrique - CIRAD

PROIntensAfrica : construire un partenariat de recherche entre Europe et Afrique - CIRAD | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
PROIntensAfrica : construire un partenariat de recherche entre Europe et Afrique : Selon les estimations actuelles, la population mondiale pourrait atteindre les 9 milliards d’habitants en 2050. La diversification des régimes alimentaires qui accompagnera cette croissanc
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An introduction to CIFOR's global comparative study on REDD+ (GCS-REDD+) - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

An introduction to CIFOR's global comparative study on REDD+ (GCS-REDD+) - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Presentation by Maria Brockhaus, Professor of International Forest Policy at the University of Helsinki, Finland, at a workshop on ‘Sharing insights across REDD+ countries: Opportunities and obstacles for effective, efficient, and equitable REDD+ carbon and non-carbon results’, held from 21-23 February 2017 in Naypyidaw, Myanmar. An introduction to CIFOR’s global comparative study on REDD+ (GCS-REDD+) from Center for International Forestry …
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Brazil's National Environmental Registry of Rural Properties: Implications for Livelihoods

Publication date: June 2017
Source:Ecological Economics, Volume 136
Author(s): Suhyun Jung, Laura Vang Rasmussen, Cristy Watkins, Peter Newton, Arun Agrawal
In Brazil, the Cadastro Ambiental Rural (CAR) is currently being implemented. This policy aims to geo-reference all properties and promote monitoring of, and compliance with, natural vegetation conservation requirements. Scholarly efforts and policy attention have so far concentrated on possible environmental impacts hereof, while the attention devoted to how the CAR might affect farmers' livelihoods has been limited. In this paper, we evaluate potential livelihood impacts of the CAR and programs that facilitate CAR registration. We do so by developing a conceptual framework and using evidence from semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders including farmers, governments, and funding agencies. We find that while the CAR and programs facilitating CAR do not have explicit livelihood impact goals, they nonetheless affect livelihoods, both positively and negatively, depending on the initial amount of natural vegetation on farmers' properties, farmers' access to credit and infrastructure, and changing market conditions. We argue that environmental interventions and policies need to consider potential livelihood impacts, especially if the policy intervention area has high poverty rates.
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Celebrating gender and biodiversity - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Celebrating gender and biodiversity - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
By Marlene Elias (Bioversity International) On the occasion of International Women’s Day, Bioversity international has launched a series of factsheets on “Creating mutual benefits: examples of gender and biodiversity outcomes from Bioversity International’s research”. The publication features six case studies carried out by Bioversity International with local NGOs and partners. Three of these take place in forest and agroforestry landscapes, …
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Plateau des Guyanes : les cours mondiaux de l’or déterminent l’ampleur de la déforestation - CIRAD

Plateau des Guyanes : les cours mondiaux de l’or déterminent l’ampleur de la déforestation - CIRAD | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Plateau des Guyanes : les cours mondiaux de l’or déterminent l’ampleur de la déforestation : L’or valeur refuge pourrait bien sceller le destin d’une partie des forêts du Plateau des Guyanes. Lorsque les cours de l’or montent, la déforestation augmente sur le Plateau des Guyanes, e
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Research: Climate change disrupting farming in Central America –...

New CI research gives farmers and other decision-makers the full picture of climate change impacts in Central America.
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Deforestation and land use strongly effect soil organic carbon and nitrogen stock in Northwest Ethiopia

Publication date: June 2017
Source:CATENA, Volume 153
Author(s): Dessie Assefa, Boris Rewald, Hans Sandén, Christoph Rosinger, Abrham Abiyu, Birru Yitaferu, Douglas L. Godbold
Soil is the largest terrestrial organic carbon pool and can act as a source or sink for atmospheric CO2. Although reliable soil carbon (SOC) stock measurements of major ecosystems are essential for predicting the influence of advancing climate change, comprehensive data on SOC stocks is still scarce for most ecosystems in subtropical areas. In this study, SOC and N stocks of different land use systems were investigated along a climatic gradient in Northwest Ethiopia. The land use systems ranged from dry subtropical Afromontane forest, as the baseline, to cropland as the most degraded system. In addition, we investigated the changes of SOC stocks after interventions to recover vegetation cover; these were eucalyptus plantations and an exclosure to prevent grazing. Total SOC varied between land use systems and ranged from 3.1kgCm−2 in croplands to 23.9kgCm−2 in natural forest, and average N stock ranged from 0.4kgNm−2 in croplands to 2.1kgNm−2 in natural forest. In forests, there were a clear vertical gradient in SOC and N stock down the soil profile, and 60% of the total SOC and N stocks were found in the upper 10cm soil depth. Using the Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios and the vertical distribution of the C/N ratio of the soil, the losses of SOC were shown to be due to loss of the of the upper soil layer. Afforestation of degraded croplands and grazing lands with eucalyptus increased SOC stocks to nearly 70% of the natural forest levels within 30years. Exclosure, which removed grazing pressure and allowed regeneration of native vegetation, increased SOC in the top soil only.
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Sénégal : des mécanismes innovants pour favoriser l’inclusion sociale des exploitations familiales - Gret

Fort d’une expérience reconnue dans le secteur de l’inclusion financière des populations rurales et agricoles, le Gret travaille depuis 2012 [Lire la suite]
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Le Gret accompagne l’émergence des organisations paysannes au Myanmar - Gret

Le Gret accompagne l’émergence des organisations paysannes au Myanmar - Gret | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
En 2012, les paysans birmans obtenaient enfin l’autorisation de créer des associations et des syndicats pour gérer des services collectifs [Lire la suite]
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Forests, Climate Change and REDD+: A brief introduction - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Forests, Climate Change and REDD+: A brief introduction - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Presentation by Maria Brockhaus, Professor of International Forest Policy at the University of Helsinki, Finland, at a workshop on ‘Sharing insights across REDD+ countries: Opportunities and obstacles for effective, efficient, and equitable REDD+ carbon and non-carbon results’, held from 21-23 February 2017 in Naypyidaw, Myanmar. Forests, Climate Change and REDD+: A brief introduction from Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
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Expert-based ex-ante assessments of potential social, ecological, and economic impacts of upgrading strategies for improving food security in rural Tanzania using the ScalA-FS approach | World Agro...

Subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa are highly vulnerable to food insecurity given their low adaptive capacity against ecological and socio-economic shocks. Therefore, food security is one of their main challenges. Participatory action research across food value chains (FVCs) can help stabilize and enhance food security by developing upgrading strategies (UPS) that enhance specific aspects of crop production, post-harvest processing, marketing, income generation, and consumption.
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Evaluating fire severity in Sudanian ecosystems of Burkina Faso using Landsat 8 satellite images | World Agroforestry Centre

The fire severity of the 2013–2014 fire season within Sudanian ecosystems in Burkina Faso was evaluated from Landsat 8 images using derivatives of the Normalized Burn Ratio algorithm (NBR). The relationship between the image-derived severity and the field observed severity i.e. Composite Burn Index (CBI) was best described by a nonlinear model of the form y = a + b*EXP(CBI *c) (R2 = 0.66). Classification of the image-derived burned area into burn severity classes achieved a classification Kappa accuracy statistic of 0.56.
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Faut-il ajouter une aide climatique ou mieux intégrer les préoccupations climatiques dans l’aide au développement?

The obligation of developed countries to support developing countries in their attempts to address climate challenges leads to question the linkage between this “climate aid” and development aid. We acknowledge that climate change creates a need for qualitative and quantitative changes in development aid benefitting to vulnerable countries and that the addition of an aid dedicated to climate issues (climate finance) partly responds to this need. However we show that this approach mainly provides inconveniences compared with an increase in development aid associated with adequate climate mainstreaming in all its components. We expect that this option would better contribute to a development decoupled from greenhouse gas emissions and adapted to climate constraints.
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Smallholder Farmers and the Dynamics of Degradation of Peatland Ecosystems in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Publication date: June 2017
Source:Ecological Economics, Volume 136
Author(s): Medrilzam Medrilzam, Carl Smith, Ammar Abdul Aziz, John Herbohn, Paul Dargusch
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Prioritizing investments for climate-smart agriculture: Lessons learned from Mali

Publication date: June 2017
Source:Agricultural Systems, Volume 154
Author(s): N. Andrieu, B. Sogoba, R. Zougmore, F. Howland, O. Samake, O. Bonilla-Findji, M. Lizarazo, A. Nowak, C. Dembele, C. Corner-Dolloff
Agricultural productivity and growth in Mali are under threat from erratic rainfall, resulting in more frequent dry years. The national economy is vulnerable to climate change due to 50% of the gross domestic product coming from the agricultural sector and 75% of the population living in rural areas. The Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) concept arises from a need to provide innovative solutions towards the complex and integrated goals of increasing yields, improving resilience, and promoting a low emissions agricultural sector. A major challenge for policymakers to operationalize CSA is the identification, valuation (cost-benefit), and subsequent prioritization of climate-smart options and portfolios (groups of CSA options) for investment. This paper presents the process, results, and lessons learned from a yearlong pilot of the Climate-Smart Agriculture Prioritization Framework (CSA-PF) in Mali. Key national and international stakeholders participated in the co-development and prioritization of two CSA portfolios and related action plans for the Malian Sudanese zone. Initial steps towards outcomes of the process include inclusion of prioritized CSA practices in ongoing development projects and prompting discussion of modifications of future calls for agricultural development proposals by regional donors.
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High salinity leads to accumulation of soil organic carbon in mangrove soil

Publication date: June 2017
Source:Chemosphere, Volume 177
Author(s): Morimaru Kida, Mitsutoshi Tomotsune, Yasuo Iimura, Kazutoshi Kinjo, Toshiyuki Ohtsuka, Nobuhide Fujitake
Although mangrove forests are one of the most well-known soil organic carbon (SOC) sinks, the mechanism underlying SOC accumulation is relatively unknown. High net primary production (NPP) along with the typical bottom-heavy biomass allocation and low soil respiration (SR) have been considered to be responsible for SOC accumulation. However, an emerging paradigm postulates that SR is severely underestimated because of the leakage of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in groundwater. Here we propose a simple yet unique mechanism for SOC accumulation in mangrove soils. We conducted sequential extraction of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) from mangrove soils using ultrapure water and artificial seawater, respectively. A sharp increase in humic substances (HS) concentration was observed only in the case of ultrapure water, along with a decline in salinity. Extracted WEOM was colloidal, and ≤70% of it re-precipitated by the addition of artificial seawater. These results strongly suggest that HS is selectively flocculated and maintained in the mangrove soils because of high salinity. Because sea salts are a characteristic of any mangrove forest, high salinity may be one of mechanisms underlying SOC accumulation in mangrove soils.
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What stories can a pixel tell?: monitoring landscape changes through remote sensing - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

What stories can a pixel tell?: monitoring landscape changes through remote sensing - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
By Amy Cruz, originally published at ICRAF’s Agroforestry World Blog A monitoring system has the potential to help governments, research organizations and other groups detect changes in landscapes, such as deforestation and establishment of oil palm plantations. Representatives from government agencies, research organizations and academe in the Philippines attended a forum on the near real-time monitoring of forest landscapes through …
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IUFRO: News

IUFRO: News | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
The IUFRO World Congress 2019 will be an opportunity to honour outstanding scientific achievements and contributions to forestry with a range of IUFRO Awards.
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2017 - Les normes privées de durabilité, enjeu stratégique pour le commerce international et l'action publique

Portail de veille thématique pour les sciences sociales en Agriculture, Alimentation, Espace et Environnement
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Parcs nationaux : un décret simplifie les procédures – – Environnement-magazine.fr

Parcs nationaux : un décret simplifie les procédures –  – Environnement-magazine.fr | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Présenté comme un texte d'application de la loi Biodiversité, le décret relatif aux parcs nationaux et aux réserves naturelles, publié le 28 février, poursuit en réalité un objectif plus …
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2017 - Stratégie nationale de transition écologique vers un développement durable 2015-2020 : Rapport au Parlement 2016

Portail de veille thématique pour les sciences sociales en Agriculture, Alimentation, Espace et Environnement
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