Ecosystèmes Tropicaux
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In 2012, the market for REDD carbon credits shrank and the price fell

In 2012, the market for REDD carbon credits shrank and the price fell | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Ecosystem Marketplace recently released its State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013. The report provides a fascinating insight into the unregulated voluntary carbon market.
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Ecosystèmes Tropicaux
Veille sur les écosystèmes tropicaux. Réalisée par Agroparistech - centre de Montpellier - A. Filatre
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Conversion of rainforest into agroforestry and monoculture plantation in China: Consequences for soil phosphorus forms and microbial community

Conversion of rainforest into agroforestry and monoculture plantation in China: Consequences for soil phosphorus forms and microbial community | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Publication date: 1 October 2017
Source:Science of The Total Environment, Volume 595
Author(s): Jinchuang Wang, Changqi Ren, Hanting Cheng, Yukun Zou, Mansoor Ahmed Bughio, Qinfen Li
Microbial communities and their associated enzyme activities affect quantity and quality of phosphorus (P) in soils. Land use change is likely to alter microbial community structure and feedback on ecosystem structure and function. This study presents a novel assessment of mechanistic links between microbial responses to land use and shifts in the amount and quality of soil phosphorus (P). We investigated effects of the conversion of rainforests into rubber agroforests (AF), young rubber (YR), and mature rubber (MR) plantations on soil P fractions (i.e., labile P, moderately labile P, occluded P, Ca P, and residual P) in Hainan Island, Southern China. Microbial community composition and microbial enzyme were assayed to assess microbial community response to forest conversion. In addition, we also identified soil P fractions that were closely related to soil microbial and chemical properties in these forests. Conversion of forest to pure rubber plantations and agroforestry system caused a negative response in soil microorganisms and activity. The bacteria phospholipid fatty acid (PLFAs) levels in young rubber, mature rubber and rubber agroforests decreased after forest conversion, while the fungal PLFAs levels did not change. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (16:1w5c) had the highest value of 0.246μmol(gOC)−1 in natural forest, followed by rubber agroforests, mature rubber and young rubber. Level of soil acid phosphatase activity declined soon (5 years) after forest conversion compared to natural forest, but it improved in mature rubber and agroforestry system. Labile P, moderately labile P, occluded P and residual P were highest in young rubber stands, while moderately labile, occluded and residual P were lowest in rubber agroforestry system. Soil P fractions such as labile P, moderately labile P, and Ca P were the most important contributors to the variation in soil microbial community composition. We also found that soil P factions differ significantly among the four transformation systems. Soil labile P faction and its potential sources (moderately labile P, occluded P, and residual P) were positively correlated with NO3 −, but negatively correlated with AMF, suggesting that these properties play key roles in P transformation. Our study indicated that land use had an impact on microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced soil phosphorus availability and cycling.
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Le Cameroun et l'UE signent un accord pour une meilleure gestion des ressources forestières - Médiaterre

Le Cameroun et l'UE signent un accord pour une meilleure gestion des ressources forestières - Médiaterre | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
L'actualité du développement durable avec Médiaterre, le système d'information mondial francophone pour le développement durable concourt à la mise en oeuvre du développement durable dans l'espace francophone par la diffusion et l'échange d'informations, et l'aide à la constitution de réseaux de coopération.
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Changes in soil characteristics and C dynamics after mangrove clearing (Vietnam)

Changes in soil characteristics and C dynamics after mangrove clearing (Vietnam) | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Publication date: 1 September 2017
Source:Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 593–594
Author(s): Séraphine Grellier, Jean-Louis Janeau, Nhon Dang Hoai, Cuc Nguyen Thi Kim, Quynh Le Thi Phuong, Thao Pham Thi Thu, Nhu-Trang Tran-Thi, Cyril Marchand
Of the blue carbon sinks, mangroves have one of the highest organic matter (OM) storage capacities in their soil due to low mineralization processes resulting from waterlogging. However, mangroves are disappearing worldwide because of demographic increases. In addition to the loss of CO2 fixation, mangrove clearing can strongly affect soil characteristics and C storage. The objectives of the present study were to quantify the evolution of soil quality, carbon stocks and carbon fluxes after mangrove clearing. Sediment cores to assess physico-chemical properties were collected and in situ CO2 fluxes were measured at the soil-air interface in a mangrove of Northern Vietnam. We compared a Kandelia candel mangrove forest with a nearby zone that had been cleared two years before the study. Significant decrease of clay content and an increase in bulk density for the upper 35cm in the cleared zone were observed. Soil organic carbon (OC) content in the upper 35cm decreased by >65% two years after clearing. The quantity and the quality of the carbon changed, with lower carbon to nitrogen ratios, indicating a more decomposed OM, a higher content of dissolved organic carbon, and a higher content of inorganic carbon (three times higher). This highlights the efficiency of mineralization processes following clearing. Due to the rapid decrease in the soil carbon content, CO2 fluxes at sediment interface were >50% lower in the cleared zone. Taking into account carbonate precipitation after OC mineralization, the mangrove soil lost ~10MgOCha−1 yr−1 mostly as CO2 to the atmosphere and possibly as dissolved forms towards adjacent ecosystems. The impacts on the carbon cycle of mangrove clearing as shown by the switch from a C sink to a C source highlight the importance of maintaining these ecosystems, particularly in a context of climate change.
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Promoting the sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems | The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)

The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) Official Web Site.
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Effects of rubber-based agroforestry systems on soil aggregation and associated soil organic carbon: Implications for land use

Publication date: 1 August 2017
Source:Geoderma, Volume 299
Author(s): Chunfeng Chen, Wenjie Liu, Xiaojin Jiang, Junen Wu
Rubber-based agroforestry (Hevea brasiliensis) systems are considered the best way to improve soil properties and the overall environmental quality of rubber monoculture, but few reports have examined soil aggregate stability in such systems. The objective of this study was to examine the management and landscape effects on water stable soil aggregates, soil aggregate-associated carbon, nitrogen content and soil carbon, and nitrogen accumulation in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. Treatments were rubber monoculture (Rm) and four rubber-based agroforestry systems: H. brasiliensis–C. arabica (CAAs), H. brasiliensis–T. cacao (TCAs), H. brasiliensis–F. macrophylla (FMAs) and H. brasiliensis–D. cochinchinensis (DCAs). The results showed that, with the exception of CAAs, the rubber-based agroforestry treatments significantly increased total soil organic carbon (SOC) and N contents and enhanced the formation of macroaggregates compared to the rubber monoculture treatment. SOC and N contents in all water-stable aggregate fractions were significantly higher in rubber-based agroforestry systems (except CAAs) compared to rubber monoculture. The macroaggregate fractions contained more organic carbon and nitrogen than the microaggregate fractions. The proportions of C and N loss from slaking and sieving were shown to have significantly negative correlations with the mean weight diameter and the SOC and N concentrations in bulk soil. The results suggest that soil surface cover with constant leaf litter fall and extensive root systems in the rubber-based agroforestry systems increased soil organic carbon and nitrogen, helped improve soil aggregation, reduced soil erosion, decreased carbon and nitrogen loss, and ultimately improved the carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates. Given that the soil physical-chemical properties improvement and the patterns of the intercropping system played key roles in managing artificial forests, we recommend that local governments and farmers should prefer T. cacao, F. macrophylla and D. cochinchinensis and not C. arabica as the alternative interplanted tree species within rubber plantations.
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Logging residues and CO2 of Brazilian Amazon timber: Two case studies of forest harvesting

Publication date: July 2017
Source:Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 122
Author(s): Camila T.D. Numazawa, Sueo Numazawa, Sergio Pacca, Vanderley M. John
Forest management has been repeatedly mentioned as a strategy to reduce damage caused by logging when compared with conventional logging. Much has been learned about logging impacts and prospects for forest management, but there are still too many gaps regarding the CO2 emissions in logging, due to residues and their impact on the carbon balance. Here we compare CO2 emissions between two timber harvesting intensity systems. Logging with an intensity of 30m3 ha−1 (L30) and logging with an intensity of 15m3 ha−1 (L15) were compared over 4 rotation periods (120 year total timeframe). Original logging residues (LR) data was used to determine emissions from residues decomposition. On average, L30 has produced more LR (41.60tha−1), than L15 (20.90tha−1); for each tonne of commercial stem in L30, 2.13 tonnes of logging residues were obtained and 2.05 tonnes of residues were found in L15. Moreover, we have created a scenario representing the carbon balance (emissions from residues versus carbon uptake from biomass re-growth) over a 120 year long period to evaluate the outcomes for both logging intensities. We find that it will need about 38.3 years under L30; whereas 18.2 years were required in the case of L15. The L30 growth period is greater than the cutting cycle, which means that aboveground standing biomass is not able to fully recover until the next cutting cycle. Fully biomass recovery was only achieved when L15 was applied. Furthermore, the diameter of the commercial tree species takes a longer time to recover than the cutting cycle. Finally, ignoring the post harvesting life cycle phases, both CO2 balances were negative, which means that both practices ended up uptaking CO2 from the atmosphere.
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2016 - Agro-Ecologie : produisons autrement

Portail de veille thématique pour les sciences sociales en Agriculture, Alimentation, Espace et Environnement
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A network perspective filling a gap in assessment of agricultural advisory system performance | World Agroforestry Centre

Agricultural advisory systems aim to improve livelihoods and well-being of the rural community by enhancing information exchange and capacity for collective action. In East Africa, advisory systems are becoming more demand driven and are being provided by an increasingly complex range of actors using participatory approaches. Social network analysis (SNA) provides a tool to examine farmer networks for broad assessment of agricultural advisory systems.
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Biomasse : la stratégie nationale part du mauvais pied  – Énergie – Environnement-magazine.fr

Biomasse : la stratégie nationale part du mauvais pied  – Énergie – Environnement-magazine.fr | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
L'Autorité environnementale (AE) a émis le 24 mars un avis sévère sur la stratégie nationale de mobilisation de la biomasse (SNMB) et le plan d’actions que celle-ci sous-tend. Or cette …
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Decoding deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Decoding deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
By Pablo Pacheco, Coordinator of Flagship 3 of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry, originally published at CIFOR’s Forests News Recently, I came across a much publicized article in The New York Times about the impact of two of the world’s biggest grain traders, Cargill and Bunge, on deforestation trends in the agricultural frontiers of Brazil and …
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La forêt d'Afrique centrale actuelle est un héritage de l'histoire humaine du XIXe siècle / Actualités - Unité de recherche Cirad - Forêts et sociétés

Une récente publication dans eLIFE, cosignée par Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury (UPR Forêts & Sociétés) remet en cause l'idée d'une forêt tout à fait primaire dans les forêts du Bassin du Congo.
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Burundi : nouvelle étape pour le plus grand barrage hydro-agricole du pays grâce à l'appui de la BAD - Médiaterre

Burundi : nouvelle étape pour le plus grand barrage hydro-agricole du pays grâce à l'appui de la BAD - Médiaterre | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
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La sélection participative du sorgho au Burkina Faso : créer de nouvelles variétés avec et pour les paysans - CIRAD

La sélection participative du sorgho au Burkina Faso : créer de nouvelles variétés avec et pour les paysans - CIRAD | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
La sélection participative du sorgho au Burkina Faso : créer de nouvelles variétés avec et pour les paysans : Au milieu des années 1990, les sélectionneurs de sorgho adoptent, au Burkina Faso, une nouvelle méthode de création variétale : la sélection participative. Elle est fondée sur un princip
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RD Congo : Stratégie et plan d'action nationaux de la Biodiversité (2016-2020) - Médiaterre

L'actualité du développement durable avec Médiaterre, le système d'information mondial francophone pour le développement durable concourt à la mise en oeuvre du développement durable dans l'espace francophone par la diffusion et l'échange d'informations, et l'aide à la constitution de réseaux de coopération.
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Le filtrage altitudinal des espèces d'arbres de grande taille permet d'expliquer la variation de la biomasse aérienne dans une forêt tropicale d'Afrique centrale / Actualités - Unité de recherche C...

Telle est la conclusion d'une conduite réalisée Christelle Gonmadje, ancienne doctorante au sein de l'unité [[Forêts et Sociétés]], en association notamment avec trois chercheurs de la même unité (Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, Vincent Freycon et Charles Doumenge).
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International Symposium on Sustainable Forest Management in the Context of Global Change (ISSFM-CGC)

From 2017-08-01 to 2017-08-03, Harbin, China, IUFRO Unit(s) involved: 8.00.00, 1.00.00
The topics of this symposium are (1) the restoration and reconstruction, (2) the sustainable management, and (3) the service function of forest ecosystems in the context of global change.
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‘Surf and turf’ can have carbon footprint of cross-country road...

‘Surf and turf’ can have carbon footprint of cross-country road... | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Exploring the vital connections between nature's well-being and our own.
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Biodiversité et intégration sous régionale en Afrique centrale : l'appui de l'Union européenne - Médiaterre

Biodiversité et intégration sous régionale en Afrique centrale : l'appui de l'Union européenne - Médiaterre | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it

ations, et l'aide à la constitution de réseaux de coopération.

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Trees, water and climate: Cool scientific insights, hot implications for research and policy - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Trees, water and climate: Cool scientific insights, hot implications for research and policy - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
By Vincent Gitz, Director, CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry, and Meine van Noordwijk, Landscape Research Leader, CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry. FTA recently organized a two-day virtual symposium entitled Trees, forests and water: cool insights for a hot world to share live online the findings of a recent review paper by David Ellison and …
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L'éco-pastoralisme monte en puissance et se professionnalise – – Environnement-magazine.fr

L'éco-pastoralisme monte en puissance et se professionnalise –  – Environnement-magazine.fr | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Les rencontres nationales de l'éco-pâturage ont lieu ce 23 mars à Angers. L'occasion de s'interroger sur le développement sans précédent de cette pratique, utilisée dans des centaines de …
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Remote sensing approach for spatial planning of land management interventions in West African savannas | World Agroforestry Centre

Forest management, agroforestry and tree planting are some of the key approaches to sustainable rural development, and climate change adaptation and mitigation in West African savannas. However, the planning of land management interventions is hindered by the lack of information at relevant spatial resolution. We examined predictive models for mapping various tree, soil and species diversity attributes with a comparison of RapidEye and Landsat imagery.
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Trees for Food Security - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Trees for Food Security Project goal is to enhance food security for resource-poor people in rural Eastern Africa through research that supports national programmes to scale up the use of trees within farming systems in Ethiopia and Rwanda and then scale out successes to relevant ago-ecological zones in Uganda and Burundi. Through the project, 5 Rural Resource Centers (2 in …
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The impact of persistent volcanic degassing on vegetation: A case study at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

Publication date: July 2017
Source:International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Volume 59
Author(s): R. Tortini, S.M. van Manen, B.R.B Parkes, S.A. Carn
Although the impacts of large volcanic eruptions on the global environment have been frequently studied, the impacts of lower tropospheric emissions from persistently degassing volcanoes remain poorly understood. Gas emissions from persistent degassing exceed those from sporadic eruptive activity, and can have significant long-term (years to decades) effects on local and regional scales, both on humans and the environment. Here, we exploit a variety of high temporal and high spatial resolution satellite-based time series and complementary ground-based measurements of element deposition and surveys of species richness, to enable a comprehensive spatio-temporal assessment of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and their associated impacts on vegetation at Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) from 2000 to 2013. We observe increased emissions of SO2 coincident with a decline in vegetation health downwind of the vents, in accordance with the prevalent wind direction at Turrialba. We also find that satellite-derived vegetation indices at various spatial resolutions are able to accurately define the vegetation kill zone, the extent of which is independently confirmed by ground-based sampling, and monitor its expansion over time. In addition, ecological impacts in terms of vegetation composition and diversity and physiological damage to vegetation, all spatially correspond to fumigation by Turrialba’s plume. This study shows that analyzing and relating satellite observations to conditions and impacts on the ground can provide an increased understanding of volcanic degassing, its impacts in terms of the long-term vegetation response and the potential of satellite-based monitoring to inform hazard management strategies related to land use.
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Variation in wood physical properties within stems of Guazuma crinita, a timber tree species in the Peruvian Amazon | World Agroforestry Centre

An understanding of wood physical properties and the interrelationships that govern them is required for efficient utilization of timber tree species. Guazuma crinita is a fast-growing timber tree of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. The aim of this study was to assess variation in wood physical properties within the G. crinita stem.
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IUFRO: Publications

IUFRO: Publications | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
"Forests and Energy" is the 2017 theme of the International Day of Forests on 21 March! IUFRO Division 5 - Forest Products will address this and related themes in a major conference this June.
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