Ecosystèmes Tropicaux
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Biodiversity could play a key role in preventing future outbreaks of malaria in tropical forests, according to a new study.
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Ecosystèmes Tropicaux
Veille sur les écosystèmes tropicaux. Réalisée par Agroparistech - centre de Montpellier - A. Filatre
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Étude diagnostique sur la foresterie communautaire en République du Congo - Médiaterre

Étude diagnostique sur la foresterie communautaire en République du Congo - Médiaterre | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
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Towards complete and harmonized assessment of soil carbon stocks and balance in forests: The ability of the Yasso07 model across a wide gradient of climatic and forest conditions in Europe

Towards complete and harmonized assessment of soil carbon stocks and balance in forests: The ability of the Yasso07 model across a wide gradient of climatic and forest conditions in Europe | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Publication date: 1 December 2017
Source:Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 599–600
Author(s): Laura Hernández, Robert Jandl, Viorel N.B. Blujdea, Aleksi Lehtonen, Kaie Kriiska, Iciar Alberdi, Veiko Adermann, Isabel Cañellas, Gheorghe Marin, Daniel Moreno-Fernández, Ivika Ostonen, Mats Varik, Markus Didion
Accurate carbon-balance accounting in forest soils is necessary for the development of climate change policy. However, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) occur slowly and these changes may not be captured through repeated soil inventories. Simulation models may be used as alternatives to SOC measurement. The Yasso07 model presents a suitable alternative because most of the data required for the application are readily available in countries with common forest surveys. In this study, we test the suitability of Yasso07 for simulating SOC stocks and stock changes in a variety of European forests affected by different climatic, land use and forest management conditions and we address country-specific cases with differing resources and data availability. The simulated SOC stocks differed only slightly from measured data, providing realistic, reasonable mean SOC estimations per region or forest type. The change in the soil carbon pool over time, which is the target parameter for SOC reporting, was generally found to be plausible although not in the case of Mediterranean forest soils. As expected under stable forest management conditions, both land cover and climate play major roles in determining the SOC stock in forest soils. Greater mean SOC stocks were observed in northern latitudes (or at higher altitude) than in southern latitudes (or plains) and conifer forests were found to store a notably higher amount of SOC than broadleaf forests. Furthermore, as regards change in SOC, an inter-annual sink effect was identified for most of the European forest types studied. Our findings corroborate the suitability of Yasso07 to assess the impact of forest management and land use change on the SOC balance of forests soils, as well as to accurately simulate SOC in dead organic matter (DOM) and mineral soil pools separately. The obstacles encountered when applying the Yasso07 model reflect a lack of available input data. Future research should focus on improving our knowledge of C inputs from compartments such as shrubs, herbs, coarse woody debris and fine roots. This should include turnover rates and quality of the litter in all forest compartments from a wider variety of tree species and sites. Despite the limitations identified, the SOC balance estimations provided by the Yasso07 model are sufficiently complete, accurate and transparent to make it suitable for reporting purposes such as those required under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and KP (Kyoto Protocol) for a wide range of forest conditions in Europe.
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SILVA Network annual conference: Forest Science Education: Forests for university education: examples and experiences

From 2017-06-26 to 2017-06-28, Prague, Czech Republic, IUFRO Unit(s) involved: 6.09.00
In academic forestry education, at both universities and universities of applied sciences, the importance to incorporate in the curricula in-forest teaching was recognized rather early. Hence, it has a long tradition and is a firm component in all forest science syllabi. From this tradition at many academic institutions the access to forests was seen as so important, that very often specific regulations for "university forests" were established. As a result there exists a very wide range, on how these teaching forests are legally linked to the university: direct ownership, long-lasting land-lease contracts or comparatively loose management regulations. In any case, the 2017 SILVA Network meeting wants to address all aspects of these forests with their special meaning for university teaching, education and sometimes also research.
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La stratégie nationale de mobilisation de la biomasse en consultation  – Énergie – Environnement-magazine.fr

La stratégie nationale de mobilisation de la biomasse en consultation  – Énergie – Environnement-magazine.fr | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Mise en consultation sur le site du ministère de l'Environnement, la stratégie nationale de mobilisation de la biomasse définit un cadre global pour l’action publique qui guidera les mesures plus …
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Protection du massif forestier de Ngoyla au Sud-est Cameroun : l'appui de la Banque mondiale - Médiaterre

Protection du massif forestier de Ngoyla au Sud-est Cameroun : l'appui de la Banque mondiale - Médiaterre | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
L'actualité du développement durable avec Médiaterre, le système d'information mondial francophone pour le développement durable concourt à la mise en oeuvre du développement durable dans l'espace francophone par la diffusion et l'échange d'informations, et l'aide à la constitution de réseaux de coopération.
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Relationships between climate at origin and seedling traits in eight Panafrican provenances of Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. under imposed drought stress | World Agroforestry Centre

The morphological responses of seedlings of eight African provenances of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea tree or Karité) to imposed draught stress were compared under nursery experimental conditions. The potted seedlings were subjected to three different watering regimes (87 days after sowing): no water stress (100% of the field capacity, C), moderate water stress (75% of C) and severe water stress (50% of C).
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Evaluating regression-kriging for mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction of soil properties in western Kenya

Publication date: September 2017
Source:Geoderma Regional, Volume 10
Author(s): Andrew Sila, Ganesh Pokhariyal, Keith Shepherd
In this study, the utility of regression-kriging was investigated in building prediction models for soil properties using mid-infrared (7498 to 600cm−1) spectral data for soil samples collected from Nyando, Nzoia and Yala catchment areas in Kenya, sampled at 0–20cm and 20–50cm depths. Using a systematic technique, 158 samples were selected for analysis of a number of soil properties of interest using wet chemistry methods. We randomly divided the dataset into two groups: 118 samples in the calibration and 40 samples in the holdout validation set. The calibration set was first used to develop partial least squares regression (PLS) models for all the soil properties. Residuals from these models were used to generate semivariograms, which revealed a strong spatial dependence as determined by the ratio of nugget to sill for nitrogen, 9%; Al, 12%; and B, 36%, but with weak spatial dependence for exchangeable Ca (ExCa), 100%; and carbon, 76%. The fitted theoretical semivariograms were used to fit regression-kriging models. Lastly, both the PLS and regression-kriging models were assessed with the validation set and their prediction performance evaluated by R2 and root mean square error (RMSE). The results showed that regression kriging method gave lower RMSE values for all the evaluated soil properties except for ExCa, B and exchangeable acidity, with the best predictions, compared with the PLS model, obtained for ExMg (R2, 0.93 vs 0.88; RMSE, 6.1 vs 8.4cmolc kg−1) and total nitrogen (R2 =0.92 vs R2 =0.74; RMSE, 0.11%, RMSE=0.2%). In this study, regression-kriging, which takes into account spatial variation normally ignored by other methods, improved use of infrared spectroscopy for predicting soil properties.
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La lutte contre l'exportation illégale du bois en direction de la Chine en débat à Douala - Médiaterre

La lutte contre l'exportation illégale du bois en direction de la Chine en débat à Douala - Médiaterre | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
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Getting down and dirty in degraded lands - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Getting down and dirty in degraded lands - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
By Deanna Ramsay, originally published at CIFOR’s Forests News Tropical peatlands are massive carbon sinks. But what happens when they are depleted of the water that sustains them, or subject to other land-use changes? After fires raged in 2015 over Sumatra and Kalimantan in Indonesia, in part due to the widespread draining of peatlands, these wetland ecosystems and their environmental …
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Profiting from well-chosen tree species: improving the productivity of farming systems in Northwestern Vietnam - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Profiting from well-chosen tree species: improving the productivity of farming systems in Northwestern Vietnam - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
By Ivanna Patton, La Nguyen and Ake E Mamo, originally published at ICRAF’s Agroforestry World Blog Northwestern Vietnam is home to the three poorest provinces of the country, with a combined population of 3.4 million people and poverty ranging from 32% to 48% of households  across provinces.  There is a culturally diverse mix of communities comprising 30 ethnic groups but …
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Influence of the structural framework on peat bog distribution in the tropical highlands of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Publication date: September 2017
Source:CATENA, Volume 156
Author(s): José Ricardo da Rocha Campos, Alexandre Christófaro Silva, Marcos Rafael Nanni, Marcilene dos Santos, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Peat bogs are ecosystems characterized by high levels of organic matter (OM), which accumulates in environments of low biological activity. The peat bogs present in the tropical highlands of Serra do Espinhaço Meridional (SdEM), Brazil, are associated with hydromorphic environments formed under specific conditions and the strong influence of the quartzite basement, whereby a complex pattern of faults, fractures and folds has deeply affected the drainage network and geomorphological framework. This study investigated the influence of the structural framework on the distribution and morphology of these ecosystems within a hydrological and geomorphological context. The physical features of the landscape were analyzed using geological maps, a digital elevation model and by mapping the main geomorphological feature patterns obtained from geographic information systems (GIS). Ground Penetrating Radar transects were taken in representative areas, as the best strategy for detection of buried peat bogs, as well as to analyze bedrock configuration and infer its relationship with water flow. Four peat bog typologies were identified: “entrenched bogs”, “subsurface bogs”, “structural bogs”, and “hanging bogs”. The distribution and morphology of these typologies display a strong relationship either with alluvial sediments and floodplains or with structural/lithological features which caused water retention.
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2017-La démarche évaluative de la politique agro-écologique : premiers outils et perspectives

Portail de veille thématique pour les sciences sociales en Agriculture, Alimentation, Espace et Environnement
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Soil management and land restoration vital to meeting climate change and sustainable development targets - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Soil management and land restoration vital to meeting climate change and sustainable development targets - Forests, Trees and Agroforestry | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
By Susan Onyango, originally published at ICRAF’s Agroforestry World Blog Land degradation impacts the health and livelihoods of about 1.5 billion people worldwide. Further, the annual costs associated with land degradation worldwide is estimated to be US$ 231 billion as measured in terms of loss productivity and the costs to due to loss of ecosystems services. Given that the state …
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Sediment carbon and nutrient fluxes from cleared and intact temperate mangrove ecosystems and adjacent sandflats

Sediment carbon and nutrient fluxes from cleared and intact temperate mangrove ecosystems and adjacent sandflats | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Publication date: 1 December 2017
Source:Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 599–600
Author(s): Richard H. Bulmer, Luitgard Schwendenmann, Andrew M. Lohrer, Carolyn J. Lundquist
The loss of mangrove ecosystems is associated with numerous impacts on coastal and estuarine function, including sediment carbon and nutrient cycling. In this study we compared in situ fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the sediment to the atmosphere, and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients and oxygen across the sediment-water interface, in intact and cleared mangrove and sandflat ecosystems in a temperate estuary. Measurements were made 20 and 25months after mangrove clearance, in summer and winter, respectively. Sediment CO2 efflux was over two-fold higher from cleared than intact mangrove ecosystems at 20 and 25months after mangrove clearance. The higher CO2 efflux from the cleared site was explained by an increase in respiration of dead root material along with sediment disturbance following mangrove clearance. In contrast, sediment CO2 efflux from the sandflat site was negligible (≤9.13±1.18mmolm−2 d−1), associated with lower sediment organic matter content. The fluxes of inorganic nutrients (NH4 +, NOx and PO4 3−) from intact and cleared mangrove sediments were low (≤20.37±18.66μmolm−2 h− 1). The highest NH4 + fluxes were measured at the sandflat site (69.21±13.49μmolm−2 h− 1). Lower inorganic nutrient fluxes within the cleared and intact mangrove sites compared to the sandflat site were associated with lower abundance of larger burrowing macrofauna. Further, a higher fraction of organic matter, silt and clay content in mangrove sediments may have limited nutrient exchange.
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Un soutien financier pour la gestion forestière responsable en RCA - Médiaterre

Un soutien financier pour la gestion forestière responsable en RCA - Médiaterre | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
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In a country where coffee is king, sustainability is brewing –...

In a country where coffee is king, sustainability is brewing –... | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
CI experts traveled to Nicaragua to learn how McDonald's coffee roasters are helping local coffee farmers and their communities.
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Le moratoire sur l'utilisation des forêts se poursuit en Indonésie

Le moratoire sur l'utilisation des forêts se poursuit en Indonésie | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
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IUFRO: Publications

IUFRO: Publications | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Just published: Concise version of IUFRO Annual Report 2016 with President’s summary and outlook by Vice-Presidents now available! Full version under way!
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SoilPlusVeg: An integrated air-plant-litter-soil model to predict organic chemical fate and recycling in forests

SoilPlusVeg: An integrated air-plant-litter-soil model to predict organic chemical fate and recycling in forests | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Publication date: 1 October 2017
Source:Science of The Total Environment, Volume 595
Author(s): Elisa Terzaghi, Melissa Morselli, Matteo Semplice, Bruno Enrico Leone Cerabolini, Kevin C. Jones, Michele Freppaz, Antonio Di Guardo
Current modelling approaches often ignore the dynamics of organic chemicals uptake/release in forest compartments under changing environmental conditions and may fail in accurately predict exposure to chemicals for humans and ecosystems. In order to investigate the influence of such dynamics on predicted concentrations in forest compartments, as well as, on air-leaf-litter fluxes, the SoilPlusVeg model was developed including a forest compartment (root, stem, leaves) in an existing air-litter-soil model. The accuracy of the model was tested simulating leaf concentrations in broadleaf woods located in Northern Italy and resulted in satisfying model performance. Illustrative simulations highlighted the “dual behaviour” of both leaf and litter compartments. Leaves appeared to behave as “filters” of air contaminants but also as “dispensers”, being deposition flux exceeded by volatilization flux in some periods of the day. Similarly, litter seemed to behave as a dynamic compartment which could accumulate and then release contaminants recharging air and vegetation. In just 85days, litter could lose due to volatilization, diffusion to depth and infiltration processes, from 6% to 90% of chemical amount accumulated over 1year of exposure, depending on compound physical and chemical properties. SoilPlusVeg thus revealed to be a powerful tool to understand and estimate chemical fate and recycling in forested systems.
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Project in Indonesia illustrates how tree genetic resources can positively affect livelihoods | World Agroforestry Centre

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To control or not to control: how do we lern more about how agronomic innovations perform on farms? | World Agroforestry Centre

Our paper ‘Loading the dice in favour of the farmer: reducing the risk of adopting agronomic innovations’ revealed mean increases but also large variation in the impact of four agroforestry practises on maize yield, as experienced by farmers in Malawi. This prompted a response from Sileshi and Akinnifesi that was critical of the data and methods used. Their main concern was that farmers did not necessarily manage crops identically in plots with and those without trees, so the yield differences that we measured may be partly caused by these differences in crop management.
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Quatrième congrès mondial d’agroforesterie : renforcer les relations entre science, société et politiques publiques - CIRAD

Quatrième congrès mondial d’agroforesterie : renforcer les relations entre science, société et politiques publiques - CIRAD | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Quatrième congrès mondial d’agroforesterie : renforcer les relations entre science, société et politiques publiques : Montpellier accueillera du 20 au 25 mai 2019 le 4e Congrès mondial d’agroforesterie. L’organisation de ce congrès, qui a lieu tous les cinq ans et pour la première fois en Europe, est porté
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Le Parlement européen adopte une résolution sur l’huile de palme et la déforestation des forêts tropicales humides – Droit – Environnement-magazine.fr

Le Parlement européen adopte une résolution sur l’huile de palme et la déforestation des forêts tropicales humides – Droit – Environnement-magazine.fr | Ecosystèmes Tropicaux | Scoop.it
Le Parlement européen a adopté, mardi 4 avril 2017, une résolution sur l’huile de palme et la déforestation des forêts tropicales humides. Les députés européens dénoncent les conséquences …
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2016 - Evaluation Fançaise des Ecosystèmes et des Services Ecosystémiques (EFESE) :rapport intermédiaire

Portail de veille thématique pour les sciences sociales en Agriculture, Alimentation, Espace et Environnement
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