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GM crops, developing countries and food security - Areal &al (2012) - World Agriculture

GM crops, developing countries and food security - Areal &al (2012) - World Agriculture | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

The agronomic and economic performance of genetically modified (GM) crops relative to their conventional counterparts has been largely investigated worldwide. As a result there is considerable information to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the agronomic and economic relative performance of GM crops vs. non GM crops by crop, GM trait, and country’s level of development. Such meta-analysis has been recently conducted showing that overall GM crops outperform non GM crops in both agronomic and economic terms. 

This paper focuses on the agronomic and economic performance of GM crops in developing and developed countries as well as the potential implications for global food security of adoption of GM crops by developing countries. The presumption that technology only benefits the developed world is not supported by the meta-analysis conducted. No evidence that GM technology benefits more developed than developing countries was found. Indeed, the agronomic and economic performance of GM crops vs. conventional crops tends to be better for developing than for developed countries. 

Although it is manifested that the conventional agronomic practices in developing countries are different to those in developed countries, it is also apparent that GM crop adoption in developing countries may help to tackle the growing concerns over the scarcity of food globally...

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Bringing light into the discussion about GMOs? – A rather long reading list

[updated 12 June, 2014]  

 

These days I received an apparently easy request: “Do you have any recommendations for reading about the debate on GMOs? I think there is a lot of heat, but too little light in the discussion; I trust you can send me some…” To which I answered carelessly: “Sure, I will look into it, select a few references and post them…” 

 

I thought I’d have a quick look into my collection of bookmarks and references and post some of the links to satisfy the request. Obviously there would be too many individual studies and crop-specific or country-specific reports, but focusing only (i) on what was published in recent years, (ii) on sources where all this information was already aggregated (literature reviews, meta-analyses, authoritative statements, FAQs, etc.), and (iii) on academic or publicly funded sources should produce a fairly concise list, I thought. 

 

While not unmanageable, the list has become quite long. To get a rough idea of the current state of knowledge, it may be sufficient to peruse the first 1-2 (starred *) references under each heading, and to have a quick look at the abstracts and summaries of some of the others. (Given the controversy surrounding this topic I did not want to suggest just one or two sources, but show a bit the width of the scientific consensus, and to offer some titbits of related information.) ... 

 

http://ajstein.tumblr.com/post/40504136918/
 

 

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Jennifer Mach's comment, March 30, 2013 9:05 AM
I admit I haven't read this list... but for future reference, I'll definitely have a look.
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Researchers: Africa Genetically Modified Crops Held Back by Scaremongering - Voice of America (2014)

Researchers: Africa Genetically Modified Crops Held Back by Scaremongering - Voice of America (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

A new report states that genetically-modified crops -- also known as GM crops -- would dramatically improve agriculture in Africa... the technology is being held back by scaremongering from opponents.

 

Inside a temperature-regulated laboratory, scientists in Uganda are developing what they call a "golden banana" -- more hardy, and with higher levels of vitamins and minerals... one of the researchers, said, “We have been able to show that we can in crease our vitamin A levels six times” ... 


“There is a whole host of GM crops in development in Africa specifically designed to address the needs of poor farmers and poor food consumers. Crops like cassava, sorghum, bananas, sweet potato, drought-tolerant maize. And it’s precisely these crops that are stuck at the field trial stage”... governments are reluctant to approve GM crops in the face of intense lobbying by opponents.

 

“They’ve created anti-GM campaigns based on misinformation. So for example, alleging a link between GM crops and infertility, or cancer, or animal deformities. None of which is true, there’s no evidence for any of this” ... Ghana’s government insists it has put in place stringent bio-safety laws... 


If one African country did approve GM crops, others would quickly follow... “It would become apparent that they’re very useful, that they are potentially higher yielding, that they have resistance to pests of diseases, and consumers could see that they’re not a threat to their health”... 


http://www.voanews.com/content/researchers-say-africa-genetically-modified-crops-held-back-by-scaremongering/1965640.html


Original report: http://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/15204


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Senator, nutrition experts support research on healthier rice - IRRI (2014)

Senator, nutrition experts support research on healthier rice - IRRI (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Rice is the largest part of the Filipino diet and healthier versions of the staple can go a long way in helping solve key health concerns, as well as improve public health in general... Villar, chair of the Philippine Senate's Committee on Agriculture and Food, also said that “IRRI’s Healthier Rice Program plays an important role in fighting the prevalence of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among Filipinos” ... In line with the approach promoted by global nutrition experts advocating a toolkit approach of interventions, Villar said that... "there is also a need to encourage Filipinos to eat more vegetables" ... 

 

“Rice science can contribute to closing gaps in nutrition, in the Philippines and in other rice-consuming countries,” said... IRRI’s deputy director general... “We remain committed to the fight against micronutrient deficiency through our healthier rice program.”

 

IRRI is developing rice varieties that have higher levels of iron, zinc, and beta-carotene. These rice varieties can complement current strategies to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. The Institute supports the efforts of the Philippine government... to end malnutrition in the Philippines and in other rice-consuming countries.

 

http://irri.org/news/media-releases/senator-nutrition-experts-support-research-on-healthier-rice

 

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Understanding public attitudes to science - Skinner & Shah (2014) - Significance

Understanding public attitudes to science - Skinner & Shah (2014) - Significance | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

What does a medical records database in England have to do with genetically modified crops or climate change? Gideon Skinner andJayesh Navin Shah of Ipsos MORI summarise a comprehensive new study on people's attitudes to science and scientists in the UK, and the lessons for policy-makers and researchers. 


In January of this year, the National Health Service in England announced plans to upload the medical data held by GPs and hospitals to a single repository... to improve information sharing across the service... after some vocal opposition and public confusion about the scheme, the project was delayed for six months to allow more time for debate and discussion with patients and GPs.

 

At a time when revelations about mass surveillance programmes and phone hacking are hot news, this response might have been expected; that it was not is perhaps an indication that we have failed to learn the lessons of seemingly unrelated but similarly “hot button” issues like genetically modified (GM) crops or climate change – topics where the weight of scientific opinion is not always reflected in the public discourse.

 

Why do these disconnects occur between scientific knowledge and public understanding? Sometimes it is to do with levels of trust (or the lack of it); other times it may come down to the inability of scientists to communicate in ways that resonate with people... 

 

While attempts to “educate” the public on the scientific facts around an issue may flounder, that does not mean that scientists and researchers should stop talking to the public about their work. In fact, people want to engage directly with scientists and researchers more often. The PAS 2014 survey finds seven in ten agreeing that “scientists should listen more to what ordinary people think” (69%) and that they should “spend more time discussing the social and ethical implications of their research with the public” (68%). Half (53%) think scientists “should be rewarded for communicating their research to the public”.

 

The PAS studies suggest that the key to successful science communication is to understand that there are multiple “publics”. While people want to engage, not everyone will do so in the same way, or through the same channels. It is, therefore, worth policy-makers and researchers reflecting on whom they are aiming to engage and how. While some people will relish the technical details, others are more interested in the social and ethical implications of the work.

 

While UK public attitudes to science are overwhelmingly positive, this does not reduce the need for dialogue with the public. Regardless of whether the issues at hand are GM crops or big data, people want to hear more from the scientists and researchers working in these areas. While the public may already support various scientific and technological changes in principle, there are many concerns beneath this, and these are partly driven by confusion over how scientists and researchers go about their work, and what their intentions are. Scientists and researchers need to communicate these points, and need to tailor their communication for different audiences – very few people will engage with the hard scientific facts alone.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-9713.2014.00748.x

 

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US-EU trade talks sour amid chlorine chicken fears - Washington Post (2014)

US-EU trade talks sour amid chlorine chicken fears - Washington Post (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Visions of chlorine-drenched chickens and the prospect of genetically modified [food] invading dinner tables across the European Union are proving serious impediments to the signing of a sweeping free trade agreement between the United States and the 28-country bloc... Suspicions toward the U.S. following a spying scandal and electoral considerations on both sides of the Atlantic have also not helped to foster progress... 

 

The two sides can’t even agree on chicken meat — the EU bans U.S. poultry imports because chickens there are rinsed with chlorine to kill germs after slaughter. “If our chickens are going to be excluded from their market because of this false prejudice, that’s a big issue,” said Gary Hufbauer, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics... 


Just as thorny is Europe’s refusal to allow the import of hormone-treated beef and genetically modified crops. Fears of “Frankenfood” remain a key concern of consumer groups... EU officials reject those claims against the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership as “scaremongering,” “There is nothing dangerous in TTIP,” Trade Commissioner Karel De Gucht told European lawmakers this week... 


In an ironic twist, opposition has grown in Germany, the country that stands to benefit most from the deal... There’s also increasing suspicion toward America after spying revelations that reportedly included wire-tapping Chancellor Angela Merkel’s phone by the National Security Agency. A recent poll for German public broadcaster ARD found 55 percent thought TTIP would be negative for Europeans...

 

http://www.washingtonpost.com/bf224f62-0e6e-11e4-b0dd-edc009ac1f9d_story.html


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Nigeria to adopt genetically modified crops, says agency - Guardian (2014)

Nigeria to adopt genetically modified crops, says agency - Guardian (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

The Federal Government has put in place necessary regulatory guidelines to fast track the adoption of Genetically Modified Organisms (crops) (GMO). Addressing a press conference... on the need for a Biosafety law for the adoption of Biotechnology in the country, NABDA [National Agricultural Biotechnology Development Agency] Director General, Prof. Lucy Ogbadu, said the Federal Ministry of Environment has a Biosafety Unit with well trained staff internationally and nationally to manage Biosafety matters... include Draft Biosafety Regulation on labelling, packaging and transport, draft biosafety regulation on GMOs commercialisation... a biosafety laboratory has also been established for GMOs detection and analysis.

 

Calling for the quick passage of the biosafety bill, Ogbadu noted that the absence of the law has hampered research and development in modern biotechnology in the country and would enable research institutes to carry out their statutory functions... She warned that the absence of biosafety law might make Nigeria a consumer nation of foreign GMO foods, particularly maize products instead of producer, thereby holding farmers hostage to those of other countries... She highlighted some of the importance of Biotechnology in the country to include increase in food supply with less farmland requirement; discovery of new medicines and vaccines... and also clean up of oil spills, prevention of deforestation, provision of eco-friendly materials.

 

http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/news/national-news/171310-nigeria-to-adopt-genetically-modified-crops-says-agency

 

Alexander J. Stein's insight:

Good if African countries start to narrow the molecular divide -- so they can also use a technology that so far only benefits the Americas, Asia and Australia as producers and Europe as importer...

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Beth Henggeler's curator insight, July 22, 9:29 AM

The benefits that Prof. Ogbadu mentions are so important.  Increase food security...new medicines...conservation and protection of biodiversity through reducing deforstation.

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GM agricultural technologies for Africa: a state of affairs - Chambers &al (2014) - IFPRI

GM agricultural technologies for Africa: a state of affairs - Chambers &al (2014) - IFPRI | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Agricultural biotechnology has been used to address constraints in agriculture and has the potential to make a major contribution to the overall goal of sustainable intensification. The adoption of agricultural biotechnology, and specifically genetically modified (GM) crops, by many African countries has been quite limited to date, however. To further inform the debate over agricultural biotechnology, this report collects current information on the status of biotechnology in Africa—with an emphasis on GM crops—and assesses the opportunities offered by and constraints on adoption.


The authors provide information about the region’s limited financial, technical, regulatory, and legal capacities while additionally focusing on the role of trade concerns and conflicting information as limiting factors that affect adoption. The authors also identify several initiatives that could help overcome these obstacles, such as increasing public investments in agricultural biotechnology research and development; improving regulatory frameworks and regulatory capacity; and developing an effective and broad-based communications strategy. These and other recommendations should be useful to policymakers, development specialists, and others who are concerned about the potential role that biotechnology could play in Africa as an additional tool for sustainable agriculture development.

 

http://www.ifpri.org/publication/gm-agricultural-technologies-africa-state-affairs

 

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Core Truths: 10 Common GMO Claims Debunked - Borel (2014) - Popular Science

Core Truths: 10 Common GMO Claims Debunked - Borel (2014) - Popular Science | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Genetically modified organisms have become the world’s most controversial food. But the science is more clear-cut... GMOs have been studied intensively, and they look a lot more prosaic than the hype contends... So what, exactly, do consumers have to fear? To find out, Popular Science chose 10 of the most common claims about GMOs and interviewed nearly a dozen scientists. Their collective answer: not much at all. 

 

1) Claim: Genetic engineering is a radical technology. 

 

Humans have been manipulating the genes of crops for millennia by selectively breeding plants with desirable traits... In that sense, GMOs are not radical at all. But the technique does differ dramatically from traditional plant breeding... That process allows for greater precision. "With GMOs, we know the genetic information we are using, we know where it goes in the genome... That is not true when you cross widely different varieties in traditional breeding." 

 

2) Claim: GMOs are too new for us to know if they are dangerous. 

 

It depends on how you define new. Genetically engineered plants first appeared in the lab about 30 years ago and became a commercial product in 1994. Since then, more than 1,700 peer-reviewed safety studies have been published... The scientific consensus is that existing GMOs are no more or less risky than conventional crops. 

 

3) Claim: Farmers can't replant genetically modified seeds.

 

So-called terminator genes, which can make seeds sterile, never made it out of the patent office... Commercial growers typically don't save seeds anyway. Corn is a hybrid of two lines from the same species, so its seeds won't pass on the right traits to the next generation. Cotton and soy seeds could be saved, but most farmers don't bother. "The quality deteriorates—they get weeds and so on—and it's not a profitable practice" ... 

 

4) Claim: We don't need GMOs—there are other ways to feed the world.

 

GMOs alone probably won't solve the planet's food problems. But with climate change and population growth threatening food supplies, genetically modified crops could significantly boost crop output. "GMOs are just one tool to make sure the world is food-secure... It's not the only answer, and it is not essential, but it is certainly one good thing in our arsenal."

 

5) Claim: GMOs cause allergies, cancer, and other health problems.

 

Many people worry that genetic engineering introduces hazardous proteins, particularly allergens and toxins, into the food chain... That's why biotech companies... perform extensive allergy and toxicity testing... if they're not done, the FDA can block the products... 

 

Researchers from the University of Perugia... published a review of 1,783 GMO safety tests; 770 examined the health impact on humans or animals. They found no evidence that the foods are dangerous.

 

6) Claim: All research on GMOs has been funded by Big Ag.

 

This simply isn't true. Over the past decade, hundreds of independent researchers have published peer-reviewed safety studies...

 

7) Claim: Genetically modified crops cause farmers to overuse pesticides and herbicides.

 

This claim requires a little parsing. Two relevant GMOs dominate the market. The first enables crops to express a protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which is toxic to certain insects. It's also the active ingredient in pesticides used by organic farmers. Bt crops have dramatically reduced reliance on chemical insecticides in some regions... 


The second allows crops to tolerate the herbicide glyphosate so that farmers can spray entire fields more liberally yet kill only weeds. Glyphosate use has skyrocketed in the U.S. since these GMOs were introduced in 1996. But glyphosate is among the mildest herbicides available, with a toxicity 25 times less than caffeine. Its use has decreased reliance on more toxic alternatives, such as atrazine.

 

8) Claim: GMOs create super-insects and super-weeds.

 

If farmers rely too heavily on Bt or glyphosate, then pesticide resistance is inevitable, says Tabashnik. That's evolution at work... The solution, he says, is to practice integrated pest management... The same goes for any type of farming. 

 

9) Claim: GMOs harm beneficial insect species.

 

This has been been partly debunked. Bt insecticides attach to proteins found in some insects' guts, killing select species. For most insects, a field of Bt crops is safer than one sprayed with an insecticide that kills indiscriminately...

 

10) Claim: Modified genes spread to other crops and wild plants, upending the ecosystem.

 

... The risk for neighboring farms is relatively low. For starters, it's possible to reduce the chance of cross-pollination by staggering planting schedules, so that fields pollinate during different windows of time. (Farmers with adjacent GMO and organic fields already do this.) And if some GMO pollen does blow into an organic field, it won't necessarily nullify organic status. Even foods that bear the Non-GMO Project label can be 0.5 percent GMO by dry weight.

 

As for a GMO infiltrating wild plants, the offspring's survival partly depends on whether the trait provides an adaptive edge. Genes that help wild plants survive might spread, whereas those that, say, boost vitamin A content might remain at low levels or fizzle out entirely. 

 

The Rise of GMO Crops

 

In the U.S., farmers have been planting increasing amounts GMO crops since the seeds became commercially available in 1996. Corn, cotton, and soy—which together occupy about 40 percent of U.S. cropland—are the three crops with the highest GMO fraction by area, each more than 90 percent in 2013.


Dinner, Dissected 


Very few genetically modified crops end up on plates, but the ones that do can be found in roughly two-thirds of processed foods sold in the U.S. Genetically modified bacteria and yeasts are also critical to the production of some foods, including many wines and cheeses... 

 

http://www.popsci.com/article/science/core-truths-10-common-gmo-claims-debunked

 

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Food Security and Public Distribution System in India - Kumar & Ayyappan (2014) - Ag Res

Food Security and Public Distribution System in India - Kumar & Ayyappan (2014) - Ag Res | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

This study was conducted to assess... changes in the status of food security in India... Food security was assessed in terms of its basic pillars—availability access and absorption... Several initiatives have been taken to tackle the challenge of food security, and the public distribution system (PDS) has been the most important instrument of ensuring food security in India. It has been observed that its contribution to poverty reduction and food security improvement has been increasing over time.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40003-014-0115-9

 

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Are Organic Vegetables More Nutritious After All? - NPR (2014)

Are Organic Vegetables More Nutritious After All? - NPR (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

There may never be an end to arguments over whether organic food is more nutritious. But a new study... finds that organic and conventional vegetables offer similar levels of many nutrients, including minerals, vitamin C and vitamin E. Conventional crops are higher in protein. And there are fewer pesticide residues on organic foods, as you'd expect. But the group found a significant difference in the levels of special compounds called antioxidants... 


These antioxidant compounds, which go by names like flavonoids and carotenoids, are getting a lot of attention lately. Their effects remain somewhat murky, but scientists say they can protect cells from the effects of aging, or from the sort of damage that can lead to cancer. Benbrook says this is a big reason why public health experts want us all to eat more fruits and vegetables: They deliver a good dose of antioxidants... 


Plants make these compounds to protect themselves when they run into challenges like insects or diseases... "Plants in an organic field are getting chewed on" ... 

 

This analysis, however, probably isn't the end of this debate. Jeffrey Blumberg, a professor of nutrition at Tufts University, says attempts to draw conclusions from collections of hundreds of different studies, each one comparing organic and conventional food, are beset by a host of methodological problems. For one thing, there's no single "organic" or "conventional" production system. 


Some organic crops get lots of organic fertilizer; some don't. Some are protected with lots of natural pesticides; some are not. Conventional practices vary widely, too. So it's difficult to know, in the end, what you really are comparing. And food that's compared in these studies may not be the same as the food you're buying in the store.

 

In any case, Blumberg says, the difference in nutritional quality between organic and non-organic fruits and vegetables really isn't that big — especially when you consider the gap between what Americans should eat, and what they really consume... What really will make a difference in people's health, he says, is just eating more fruits, vegetables and whole grains. If you eat plenty of these foods — whether they're organic or not — you'll get plenty of antioxidants. 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2014/07/11/330760923/are-organic-vegetables-more-nutritious-after-all

 

Alexander J. Stein's insight:

Apart from comparing apples with oranges, as pointed out by Blumberg, I wonder how the authors of the study designed it: Did they suspect that there was a crucial difference in antioxodants and then tested their hypothesis, or did they engage in data-mining and cast a net over the 340 studies to look what positive results they could get for organics? 

 

And disregarding the apple-oranges problem (as the authors did), why focus on antioxidants and ignore the higher protein content in conventional crops? In a country like the US this may be irrelevant, but in other parts of the world making sure people get enough protein (in diets that are often dominated by starchy staples) is important. And it is the more important if meat consumption should be discouraged (to use scarce resources more efficiently that are needed in its production). 

 

Finally, if antioxidants - such as carotenoids - are so important, shouldn't we ensure that those who cannot afford a balanced diet with lots of fruit and vegetables (but have to rely on a diet consisting mainly of cheap starchy staple crops, such as rice) should nevertheless get more of those valuable compounds? (Until income levels and nutrition knowledge have been boosted sufficiently for everybody to be in a position to eat healthily...) 

 

Once such solution could consist of encouraging the adoption of carotenoid-rich GM rice ("Golden Rice") and other crops (such as sweet potatoes) that have been developed over the last years to help address vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in populations that have to rely on monotonous diets. If those crops are grown "conventionally" they would not only have higher levels of carotenoids but (if the study is true) also of protein, which is also relevant for their target groups... 

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Alexander J. Stein's curator insight, July 12, 12:24 PM

Apart from comparing apples with oranges, as pointed out by Blumberg, I wonder how the authors of the study designed it: Did they suspect that there was a crucial difference in antioxodants and then tested their hypothesis, or did they engage in data-mining and cast a net over the 340 studies to look what positive results they could get for organics? 

 

And disregarding the apple-oranges problem (as the authors did), why focus on antioxidants and ignore the higher protein content in conventional crops? In a country like the US this may be irrelevant, but in other parts of the world making sure people get enough protein (in diets that are often dominated by starchy staples) is important. And it is the more important if meat consumption should be discouraged (to use scarce resources more efficiently that are needed in its production). 

 

Finally, if antioxidants - such as carotenoids - are so important, shouldn't we ensure that those who cannot afford a balanced diet with lots of fruit and vegetables (but have to rely on a diet consisting mainly of cheap starchy staple crops, such as rice) should nevertheless get more of those valuable compounds? (Until income levels and nutrition knowledge have been boosted sufficiently for everybody to be in a position to eat healthily...) 

 

Once such solution could consist of encouraging the adoption of carotenoid-rich GM rice ("Golden Rice") and other crops (such as sweet potatoes) that have been developed over the last years to help address vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in populations that have to rely on monotonous diets. If those crops are grown "conventionally" they would not only have higher levels of carotenoids but (if the study is true) also of protein, which is also relevant for their target groups... 

AckerbauHalle's curator insight, July 12, 12:51 PM

Der Vergleich Öko vs. Konventionell ist und bleibt methodisch schwierig. Ich halte persönlich das Argument eines höheren Gesundheitswertes für relativ schwach, obwohl es von Verbraucherinnen und Verbrauchern recht häufig als Kaufargument genannt wird. Übrigens war dies vor 10-15 Jahren noch deutlich stärker ausgeprägt. Inzwischen tauchen auch Argumente wir Umwelt- und Klimawirkung sowie Tierhaltung auf. 

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Bt corn to aid Philippines become global exporter of chicken - Far Eastern Ag (2014)

Bt corn to aid Philippines become global exporter of chicken - Far Eastern Ag (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

The Philippines can secure a niche in the global chicken export market if it can reduce feed prices by producing more high-yielding Bt corn... the country... may even succeed in being self-sufficient in chicken if it can sustain the growth in corn production.

 

Edilberto de Luna, chief of National Corn Program (NCP), said that with a huge stockpile of corn and the expected bumper harvest... the country might be able to supply the feed ingredients that the poultry industry needs for the rest of the year. 

 

De Luna credits the increase in corn production by farmers cultivating biotech corn for the achievement, noting that since 2003, the land devoted to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn had skyrocketed to 750,000 hectares. He added that the country used to import about one million metric tonnes (MMT) of corn to support the livestock industry... 

 

http://www.fareasternagriculture.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3623

 

Original report: http://searca.org/index.php/knowledge-management/knowledge-resources/kr-monographs/1310-productivity-growth-in-philippine-hog-and-poultry-industries

 

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Federal, state officials talk GMOs at Maui council - The Republic (2014)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency officials told a Maui County Council committee they haven't heard of any health issues related to eating genetically engineered rainbow papaya.

 

Eating rainbow papaya is the same as eating a papaya with a virus, which is a "common occurrence," Chris Wozniak, an EPA biotechnology special assistant, told the committee... A Maui doctor countered there could still be risks... Dr. Lorrin Pang said that just because it occurs naturally doesn't make it safe... 


http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/a61e0243c8ea47efb58b31b6e499d534/HI--GMO-Papaya


Alexander J. Stein's insight:

"just because it occurs naturally doesn't make it safe" >> A very peculiar argument for an opponent of agricultural biotechnology. Does this mean all "organic" and "natural" practices and products need to be tested for their safety and approved? Very well. 

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Insights: Africa's future... can biosciences contribute? - Heap & Bennett (2014) - B4FA

Insights: Africa's future... can biosciences contribute? - Heap & Bennett (2014) - B4FA | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

By 2050 the world’s population will rise to 9 billion. To satisfy demand, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has predicted that food production will need to increase by 70 per cent. Meanwhile, land and water resources are increasingly being degraded and depleted, which has serious implications for developing countries, and in particular for the African continent. These are huge challenges, but one possible solution is for farmers to combine their expert local knowledge with recent advances in biosciences.

 

The 18 short essays in Insights were commissioned to examine the implementation of biosciences for farming in Africa. The essays are eclectic and personal, sharply focused and intended to inform decision-makers whether relaxing on long-haul flights, or in deepest deliberation with colleagues. They do not advocate a position, rather they argue from experience, and offer an authoritative, independent and peer-reviewed brief. All address the grand challenge facing the best brains and entrepreneurs alike, whether in laboratories, farms, in businesses or partnerships – how will we be able to produce 70 per cent more food sustainably, sufficient to feed a predicted population of 9 billion in 2050.

 

http://b4fa.org/insights-biosciences-africa/

 

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Genetic moderation is needed to debate our food future - New Scientist (2014)

Genetic moderation is needed to debate our food future - New Scientist (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

GM is now a term loaded with baggage. Scientists must allow for people's objections to show the public there's nothing spooky about it... 


With food security firmly on the international agenda, there's a growing appetite to look again at the opportunities promised by agricultural biotechnology. Scientists working in this area are excited by new techniques that enable them to edit plant DNA with unprecedented accuracy... 


But there's a problem, notably in Europe: genetic modification.

Much of agricultural biotechnology – including conventional breeding – involves genetic modification of one kind or another. But "GM" has come to mean something quite specific, and is loaded with baggage. To many people it means risky or unnatural mixing of genes from widely disparate species, even across the plant and animal kingdoms, to create hybrids such as corn with scorpion genes. That baggage now threatens to undermine mature debate about the future of food production.

 

It is no longer a simple yes/no choice between high-tech agribusiness and conventional production driven by something ill-defined as more "natural"... So where did it all go wrong to begin with? In the late 1990s... anti-GM protestors realised that vivid images made good TV and rampaged through fields in white boiler suits destroying trial crops.

 

On the other side, industry representatives brushed aside public concerns and tried to control the media message... They also lobbied hard for the relaxation of regulations governing agribusiness. In the middle was the public, just coming to terms with farming's role in the BSE crisis. There was little space for calm, rational debate. Instead, GM became the cuckoo in the nest of agricultural biotechnology and its industry backers became ogres, shouting down any discussion of alternatives. 


As a result, many people remain unaware that there are other high-tech ways to create crops. Many of these techniques involve the manipulation of genes, but they are not primarily about the transfer of genes across species. But for GM to be discussed alongside such approaches as just another technology, scientists will have to work harder to dispel the public's remaining suspicions...

 

To my surprise, a leading plant scientist on the panel said she would be prepared to see cross-species manipulation of food crops put on hold if the public was overwhelmingly uncomfortable with it... Nevertheless, Leyser remains adamant that there is "nothing immensely fishy about a fish gene". What's more, she added, the notion of a natural separation between species is misplaced: gene-swapping between species in the wild is far more prevalent than once thought.

 

But Leyser insisted that scientists must respect the views of objectors – even if "yuck" is their only complaint. That concession from a scientist is unusual. I've spoken to many of her peers who think such objections are irrational. Scientists cannot expect people to accept their work blindly and they must make time to listen. Above all, more of them should be prepared to halt experiments that the public is uncomfortable with. And it's beginning to happen...

 

A more open and engaged conversation with the public could surely benefit the companies trying to sell us novel crop technologies.

Society, for its part, will need to listen to the experts with an open mind. And as we work out how to feed an expanding population, we will need to ask questions that are bigger than "GM: yes or no?" 

 

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329794.400-genetic-moderation-is-needed-to-debate-our-food-future.html ;
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New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding - Hou &al (2014) - Front Plant Sci

Cisgenesis is genetic modification to transfer beneficial alleles from crossable species into a recipient plant. The donor genes transferred by cisgenesis are the same as those used in traditional breeding. It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process. This allows plant genomes to be modified while remaining plants within the gene pool. Therefore, cisgenic plants should not be assessed as transgenics for environmental impacts... 

 

For example, the introduction of the R1 gene, the first gene for resistance to late blight, from wild type potato (Solanum demissum) to cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) is cisgenesis. However, the transfer of the Bt gene from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis to cotton genome to produce pest resistant cotton is transgenesis... 

 

Although both transgenesis and cisgenesis use the same genetic modification techniques to introduce gene(s) into a plant, cisgenesis introduce only genes of interest from the plant itself or from a crossable species, and these genes could also be transferred by traditional breeding techniques. Therefore, cisgenesis is not any different from traditional breeding or that which occurs in nature. There is no environmental risk evoked and release of cisgenic plants into the environment is as safe as that of traditionally bred plants... 

Alexander J. Stein's insight:

Funny, this argument that cisgenesis is not any different from traditional breeding and that cisgenic plants are as safe as traditionally bred ones -- especially after giving the example of cisgenic potatoes. I guess the authors never heard of the case of the (traditionally bred) poison potato (http://boingboing.net/2013/03/25/the-case-of-the-poison-potato.html) that suggested that "there’s actually a lot more risk and uncertainty with conventional breeding, than there is with genetic modification." 

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Genetic Technology and Food Security - Rosso (2014) - Am J Comparat Law

Genetic Technology and Food Security - Rosso (2014) - Am J Comparat Law | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

In the United States and globally, producers cultivate millions of hectares of genetically modified crops. In the United States, the USDA, EPA, and FDA govern authorization of GMOs under federal laws and agency regulations. Because food produced from GMOs is not considered materially different from conventional food, federal laws require no special labels. To address consumer concerns, states are considering label requirements. Tort remedies are available to redress damage from GMOs, but litigation has not focused on harm from GM food. GM technology is controversial, and many nations have imposed regulatory barriers or prohibitions. In the coming decades, however, GM crops may help to satisfy global demand for food and to meet the challenges of climate change... 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.5131/AJCL.2013.0025

 

Full PDF: http://ascl.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Journal-Supplement-Reports-2014-pdf.pdf

 

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Africa's GM-phobia hinders agricultural development - Trust (2014)

Africa's GM-phobia hinders agricultural development - Trust (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

The “dysfunctional” debate surrounding genetically modified crops is stifling agricultural development in Africa... According to a new report published by the London-based think tank Chatham House, continual field trials have resulted in a “convenient deadlock”.

 

Governments appease supporters of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by accommodating their research, yet also placate opponents because no new technology actually gains final approval.

 

The report noted that genetic modification (GM) is seen as highly controversial in the wider public debate, but less so by scientists and donors.

 

Only three sub-Saharan countries - Burkina Faso, Sudan and South Africa - have commercialised GM crop varieties, which were initially developed for American rather than African farmers.

 

Markets in Africa are far smaller than those in European and North America, reducing incentives for agricultural innovation... There is also a lack of technical expertise, and access to credit is limited. This makes it tough to implement long-term policies.

 

Those who wish to see GMOs used more widely in Africa must be politically astute and focus on a few “best-bet” countries... The wider context is “typified by misinformation, polarised public discourse and dysfunctional and opportunistic politics”

 

The first GM crops grown in India, Bt cotton seeds... have now been adopted by over 90 percent of India’s cotton farmers... a similar situation could arise in Africa if a GM seed emerges that sufficiently mobilises demand among farmers, pushing them to share it... 


http://www.trust.org/item/20140721170653-0qmo6/


Original report: http://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/trial-agricultural-biotechnology-africa

 

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GEAC clears import of GM soyabean oil - Business Standard (2014)

GEAC clears import of GM soyabean oil - Business Standard (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

India's biotech regulator Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) has given green signal for the import of Genetically Modified (GM) soybean oil. 

"Three applications for import of GM Soybean oil were permitted as highly processed food like oil do not contain detectable DNA or Proteins"... GEAC said, adding that more than 70 countries are importing GM soybean and canola oil.

The statutory body, which held its 121st meeting on Friday, also permitted confined field trials of 13 GM crops, including rice, brinjal, chickpea, mustard and cotton, out of the 15 cases it considered... 

During the GEAC meeting, three cases of pharmaceuticals were also considered of which two were deferred and one case pertaining to revalidation of the GEAC nod was permitted... 

An official said all GM crops field trials are subject to stringent norms which are as per the international standards. India has so far only allowed commercial growth of BT cotton... 

 

Sources said that the moratorium continues for BT brinjal and the only commercial release at present is cotton, which is grown on around 11 million hectares in the country. The decision on commercialisation of BT brinjal is yet to by taken by the government, the sources said.

 

http://www.business-standard.com/article/markets/geac-clears-import-of-gm-soyabean-oil-114072000113_1.html

 

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A Rice Which Could Save Millions Of Lives Is Raising The Stakes Over GM Foods - Business Insider (2014)

A Rice Which Could Save Millions Of Lives Is Raising The Stakes Over GM Foods - Business Insider (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Around the world, 250 million children are vitamin A-deficient, including about a third of the world’s preschool-age population. This simple deficiency kills or blinds millions of women and children each year. In places like the United States, where vegetables... are neither expensive nor scarce, it’s difficult to grasp just how pervasive, dire, and deadly a simple vitamin deficiency can be. 

 

Children whose diets are chronically low or lacking in vitamin A are at high risk for xerophthalmia, the most common cause of preventable childhood blindness, and insufficient vitamin A can make children more likely to catch an infection and more likely to die from one when they do... 

 

Programs that aim for widespread distribution of vitamin supplements certainly exist, though they are... complicated, and difficult to sustain. Such programs also sometimes fail to reach the most vulnerable populations in remote rural regions.

 

But if a food that people are already eating could be transformed into a nutritional powerhouse, it could help save the eyesight and the lives of millions of children and mothers around the world... such a... crop already exists. It’s called “Golden Rice.” ... From the beginning, Golden Rice was conceived as a project that could significantly improve global health...

 

Identified in the infancy of genetic engineering as having the potential for the biggest impact for the world’s poor, beta-carotene-producing rice was initially funded by the Rockefeller Foundation and the European Union... Beta-carotene, the pigment that makes carrots and squash orange, turns into vitamin A in the human body... 

 

Many environmental groups voiced immediate concerns about Golden Rice and genetically modified food in general. (The scientific consensus on GM foods is that they are just as safe as any other food.) ... Some see Golden Rice as a public relations campaign for genetically modified foods and biotechnology, rather than the most pragmatic solution. Still, The Gates Foundation and other major donors see Golden Rice as an important potential tool in fighting Vitamin A deficiency, and so... the project has moved forward.

 

Even after scientists created the proof-of-concept Golden Rice, much tweaking and additional research was needed. The beta-carotene-rich rice needed to be traditionally bred to work with favoured local rice varieties, a process that is time-consuming and complicated. And Golden Rice backers needed to prove that in spite of what was, for many, unfamiliar technology, the resulting product would be as reliable as supplements for curbing deficiencies.

 

Finally, in a 2009 study, scientists showed that Golden Rice was an effective source of vitamin A... Today, five field trials are wrapping up in the Philippines, primarily testing whether the crop will behave in a way that makes it appealing to local farmers. Researchers will also do additioval... 

 

Rice is a staple food for half of the world’s population, and in countries like Vietnam and Bangladesh, it provides two thirds of all calories consumed. Worldwide, about a fifth of humanity’s calories come from rice. In many countries where rice is an important staple, vitamin A deficiency and its onal safety and efficacy testing before Golden Rice goes up for apprassociated hazards are endemic.

 

Plain white rice is a relatively robust source of energy, but has few nutrients.The seeds of white rice contain no vitamin A, but just one bowl of golden rice would fulfil 60% of a child’s daily vitamin A needs. “When children are weaned, they’re often weaned on a rice gruel... “And if they don’t get any beta-carotene or vitamin A during that period, they can be harmed for the rest of their lives.”

 

While supplemental nutrition programs are both helpful and necessary, they are not enough, and funding irregularities and logistical challenges can make them an inconsistent source of vitamin A. Golden Rice, once it is widely released, will be much more cost-effective...

 

Despite common misconceptions, no one stands to get rich when poor farmers start growing Golden Rice. Instead, it will represent a fundamentally different approach, an embodiment of the old “teach a man to fish” adage... “It can be planted by the farmers using seeds from their own harvest and that would provide sustained supply of betacarotene” ... The risk of not moving forward with this is the continuation of 2 million children dying every year... 

 

http://www.businessinsider.com/what-is-golden-rice-2014-6

 

Alexander J. Stein's insight:

While overall a good article, unfortunately the journalist yielded to the temptation of going tabloid by unnecessarily exaggerating and polarising -- Golden Rice is not a "miracle rice" but simply one promising tool to help address the severest consequences of one widespread form of micronutrient malnutrition. And -- given the scientific consensus on that matter -- neither is it helpful to elevate the criticism by some (albeit vocal) activists to the level of a "war" over GM foods... 

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Modi-led government approves field trials for 21 new varieties of GM crops - Hindustan Times (2014)

Modi-led government approves field trials for 21 new varieties of GM crops - Hindustan Times (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

The new government has approved field trials for 21 new varieties of genetically modified (GM) crops, including staples such as rice and wheat. The controversial move is considered crucial to feeding India’s teeming millions... Other crops approved for the field trials include several varieties of maize and cotton. Another six were deferred for discussion because of want of sufficient information... 


http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/modi-led-government-approves-field-trials-for-21-new-varieties-of-gm-crops/article1-1240373.aspx


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Genetic blueprint of bread wheat genome unveiled - Hutton Institute (2014)

Genetic blueprint of bread wheat genome unveiled - Hutton Institute (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

The International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) has published a chromosome-based draft sequence of the bread wheat genome... This genetic blueprint provides new insights into the structure, organisation, and evolution of the large, complex genome of the world’s most widely grown cereal crop, and is the last step before a full genome sequence is reached. 

 

The sequence is an invaluable resource to plant science researchers and breeders. For the first time, they have at their disposal a set of tools enabling them to rapidly locate specific genes on individual wheat chromosomes... 

 

These results have the potential to fundamentally change the way wheat research and breeding are conducted. Access to the entire gene complement in its genomic context will allow researchers to unravel the genetic basis of important agronomic traits much faster and more easily. This will in turn allow breeders to select important traits indirectly using molecular diagnostics at an early stage in crop improvement, accelerating breeding cycles and increasing the rate of genetic gain. This is precisely the type of landmark discovery that is required to address the impending challenges of global food security and environmental change... 

 

With a chromosome-based full sequence in hand, plant breeders will have high quality tools at their disposal to accelerate breeding programmes and allow them to produce a new generation of wheat varieties with higher yields and improved resilience against environmental stress.

 

Wheat is a major dietary component for many populations across the world. Grown on more land than any other crop, more than 215 million hectares of wheat are harvested annually to generate a world production of almost 700 million tons, making it the third most produced cereal after maize and rice. It is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having higher protein content than either maize or rice... 

 

http://www.hutton.ac.uk/news/genetic-blueprint-bread-wheat-genome-unveiled

 

http://www.sciencemag.org/site/extra/wheatgenome/

 

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The long march of 'biofortified' GM foods - Japan Times (2014)

The long march of 'biofortified' GM foods - Japan Times (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

In 1992, a pair of scientists had a brain wave: How about inserting genes into rice that would boost its vitamin A content? By doing so, tens of millions of poor people who depend on rice as a staple could get a vital nutrient, potentially averting hundreds of thousands of cases of blindness each year. The idea for what came to be called “golden rice” — named for its bright yellow hue — was proclaimed as a defining moment for genetically modified food.

 

Backers said the initiative ushered in an era when GM crops would start to help the poor and malnourished... “It’s a humanitarian project,” said one of the co-inventors of golden rice, Ingo Potrykus, professor emeritus at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH)... 


Yet the rice is still a long way from appearing in food bowls — 2016 has become the latest date sketched for commercialization, provided the novel product gets the go-ahead... First, it took scientists years to find and insert two genes that modified the metabolic pathway in rice to boost levels of beta carotene, the precursor to vitamin A.

 

After that came the biosafety phase, to see if the rice was safe for health and the environment — and whether beta carotene levels in lab plants were replicated in field trials in different soils and climates. There were also “bioefficacy” experiments to see whether the rice did indeed overcome vitamin deficiency, and whether volunteers found the taste acceptable... 


“We have been working on this for a long time, and we would like to have this process completed as soon as possible”... But “it depends on the regulatory authorities. That is not under our control.” 


Coming on the heels of golden rice is the “superbanana” developed by the Queensland University of Technology in Australia with the help of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. It too is genetically designed to be enriched with beta carotene... Project leader James Dale said the so-called cooking bananas that are grown as the staple food in East Africa are low in vitamin A and iron. “Good science can make a massive difference here,” he said... 


It took 15 years of enclosed research in the lab for British scientists this year to decide to seek permission for field trials of a plant called false flax... Engineered to create omega-3 fat, the plant could be used as feed in fish farming. It would spare the world’s fish stocks, which provide food pellets for captive salmon, trout and other high-value species...  


Andrea Sonnino, chief of the Research and Extension Unit at the U.N.’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), said ensuring food security and a decent diet are very complex. GM crops have a part to play in the solution, but not exclusively so. “We have to go with a set of possible answers to problems that in many cases are technological and in many cases are not — they are social, economic and so on,” he said. “We have to work in different ways, and not only on the technological front.” 

 

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/07/11/world/science-health-world/the-long-march-of-biofortified-gm-foods/

 

Alexander J. Stein's insight:

“Access to a better and diverse diet is what people need, not a technical fix, (not) something based solely on rice or bananas.”


>> It's amazing how people always bring up the "let them eat cake" solution as easy way out. If those people could afford a better and more diverse diet they probably would - although there are also instances where people prefer to spend extra money on (processed, sugar- and fat-rich) status food rather than a more nutritionally balanced diet (hence also the growing obesity problem, sometimes in parallel to micronutrient malnutrition).


The challenge is of course to make those people rich enough to be able to afford a proper diet and to educate them about the importance of spending their money this way. But the question remains what meanwhile happens to millions and millions and millions of people/ parents who cannot afford all that yet... 


The assessment that GM crops have a part to play in the solution, but not exclusively so, is much more to the point. 

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Seedy tale: Chinese researchers stole patented corn, U.S. prosecutors allege - Science (2014)

Seedy tale: Chinese researchers stole patented corn, U.S. prosecutors allege - Science (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Employees of the Chinese agricultural company Dabeinong Technology Group Co. (DBN) and a subsidiary sneaked through midwestern cornfields, U.S. prosecutors allege, stealthily gathering patented corn that they attempted to smuggle out of the United States in microwave popcorn boxes. Over a span of years, the associates allegedly came up with various ways of stealing coveted seed lines developed by agricultural giants DuPont Pioneer, Monsanto, and LG Seeds—a feat that, had it succeeded, would have sidestepped years of research. 

 

The case is remarkable in its scope. Experts on Chinese agriculture say that it also reflects real obstacles to innovation within China... 


FBI agents tracked the group for about a year, according to court documents, eventually indicting the alleged ringleader, Mo Hailong, and five partners this past December. Last week, U.S. prosecutors arrested and charged another suspect in the case. Mo Yun, a researcher with a “PhD in an animal science field,” according to court records, heads up DBN’s research and technology division in Beijing. All seven defendants have been charged with being part of a conspiracy to steal trade secrets... 

 

The germplasm, or genetic makeup, of corn lines is a valuable form of intellectual property and is carefully guarded by seed companies. Through extensive research, breeders develop inbred seed lines that have particular traits. They can then be crossbred with other inbred lines to create hybrid lines that are sold to farmers.

 

In China, Mo Yun and her colleagues operated in an atmosphere that works against the homegrown development of such seed lines, say observers of China’s agricultural research programs. China’s plant breeding research is mainly conducted in the public sector, and researchers are not always in close contact with the companies that sell and trade seeds. Less money is available for the private sector, says Huang Jikun, director of the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy in Beijing. “The current institutional setting and incentive system” is a barrier to innovation, he notes.

 

Plant breeding research elsewhere in the world has benefited from advances in genomics and molecular markers, but plant breeding scientists in China do not work closely with researchers in those areas, says Carl Pray, an agriculture, food, and resource economics expert at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, who has worked in China. “Only a few private Chinese companies have developed major biotech and plant breeding research capacities,” he adds. Rather than labor in an atmosphere stymied by poor investment, fragmented research groups, and weak intellectual property protection, the defendants may have seen obtaining patented seed lines as a shortcut. The United States has a climate and crop growing conditions that are similar to China’s, making it a “natural place to look,” Pray says... 

 

http://news.sciencemag.org/asiapacific/2014/07/seedy-tale-chinese-researchers-stole-patented-corn-u-s-prosecutors-allege

 

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Globe-Trotting GMO Bananas Arrive For Their First Test In Iowa - NPR (2014)

Globe-Trotting GMO Bananas Arrive For Their First Test In Iowa - NPR (2014) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Somewhere in Iowa, volunteers are earning $900 apiece by providing blood samples after eating bits of a banana kissed with a curious tinge of orange. It's the first human trial of a banana that's been genetically engineered to contain higher levels of beta carotene, the nutrient that our body converts into vitamin A. Researchers want to confirm that eating the fruit does, in fact, lead to higher vitamin A levels in the volunteers' blood...

 

These are cooking bananas, common in Africa, typically eaten steamed or fried. And that's where the bananas ultimately are headed, if all goes well. They're intended for Uganda, where bananas are a staple food and many people suffer from vitamin A deficiency.

 

Yet if the experience of similar "biofortified" crops is any guide, this banana faces a path strewn with obstacles and uncertainty. More than a decade ago, for instance, researchers created a kind of "golden rice" with high levels of beta carotene — and immediately found themselves in the middle of controversy... 

 

Many regulatory and practical obstacles remain. For the banana to have any impact at all, governments would have to approve it, farmers would have to grow it, and ordinary people would have to be persuaded to eat orange-tinted bananas... 

 

Michael Grusak, a specialist on the nutritional quality of food with the USDA's Agricultural Research Service, is convinced that crops with higher nutritional levels are worth the effort, even if their effects are difficult to measure. "We know that people are not getting enough" crucial nutrients, such as vitamin A and iron, he says. "You have to get more in their mouths and hope for the best after that." ... 


http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2014/07/08/325796731/


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A simulation model to evaluate the effect of cooperation between grain merchants in managing GM and non-GM segregation for maize - Coléno & Hannachi (2014) - Food Control

A simulation model to evaluate the effect of cooperation between grain merchants in managing GM and non-GM segregation for maize - Coléno & Hannachi (2014) - Food Control | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

GM and non-GM coexistence, as defined by the European commission, defines a product as non-GM if it contains less than 0.9% of GM material. To avoid the risk of mixing GM and non-GM in the supply chain it is recommended to separate the two flows with specialized infrastructure. But doing so it is not possible to separate all the product and it lead to an increase of the cost.

 

Using a simulation model of supply chain management we show that if competing grain merchants cooperate by sharing their infrastructure it is possible to increase the quantity of GM and non-GM separated and to decrease the collection cost. Nevertheless such strategy will increase the transaction cost between competing companies. 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.06.040

 

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The Cost of a GMO-Free Market Basket of Food in the US - Goodwin &al (2014) - NCSU (PDF!)

Significant technological progress in agriculture has substantially lowered the relative cost of food production. An important component of this technological change has been the advent of genetically modified (GM) commodities. 


Some consumers remain skeptical about the safety and quality of GM foods. Although much research has addressed the impacts of GM innovations on basic commodity prices, much less is known about the costs associated with adoption of a GMO-free diet.

 

We utilize price, consumption, and expenditure data... to empirically evaluate the cost of a GMO-free diet on the typical US household... Our estimates show that current food and beverage expenditures... could increase significantly as a result of adopting a GMO-free diet... 

 

Even small increases in the costs of GMO-free ingredients in food products translate into significant impacts on the typical US household... A GMO-free certification raises prices by an average of 34%. 

 

If the typical family were to purchase only non-GMO food, their food budget would increase from $9,462 to $12,263 each year, or $2,800 per year. Overall... the cost of a typical US family’s market basket of food would rise from 8-50% annually, depending on the impacts on retail prices from going to a GMO-free diet. 

 

If one considers pricing on a per-ounce basis, the GMO-free certification adds 69% to price...

 

http://www4.ncsu.edu/~bkgoodwi/papers/non_gmo.pdf

 

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