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Bringing light into the discussion about GMOs? – A rather long reading list

[updated 14 April, 2015]  

 

These days I received an apparently easy request: “Do you have any recommendations for reading about the debate on GMOs? I think there is a lot of heat, but too little light in the discussion; I trust you can send me some…” To which I answered carelessly: “Sure, I will look into it, select a few references and post them…” 

 

I thought I’d have a quick look into my collection of bookmarks and references and post some of the links to satisfy the request. Obviously there would be too many individual studies and crop-specific or country-specific reports, but focusing only (i) on what was published in recent years, (ii) on sources where all this information was already aggregated (literature reviews, meta-analyses, authoritative statements, FAQs, etc.), and (iii) on academic or publicly funded sources should produce a fairly concise list, I thought. 

 

While not unmanageable, the list has become quite long. To get a rough idea of the current state of knowledge, it may be sufficient to peruse the first 1-2 (starred *) references under each heading, and to have a quick look at the abstracts and summaries of some of the others. (Given the controversy surrounding this topic I did not want to suggest just one or two sources, but show a bit the width of the scientific consensus, and to offer some titbits of related information.) ... 

 

http://ajstein.tumblr.com/post/40504136918/
 

 

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Jennifer Mach's comment, March 30, 2013 9:05 AM
I admit I haven't read this list... but for future reference, I'll definitely have a look.

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Scooped by Alexander J. Stein
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Bringing light into the discussion about GMOs? – A rather long reading list

[updated 14 April, 2015]  

 

These days I received an apparently easy request: “Do you have any recommendations for reading about the debate on GMOs? I think there is a lot of heat, but too little light in the discussion; I trust you can send me some…” To which I answered carelessly: “Sure, I will look into it, select a few references and post them…” 

 

I thought I’d have a quick look into my collection of bookmarks and references and post some of the links to satisfy the request. Obviously there would be too many individual studies and crop-specific or country-specific reports, but focusing only (i) on what was published in recent years, (ii) on sources where all this information was already aggregated (literature reviews, meta-analyses, authoritative statements, FAQs, etc.), and (iii) on academic or publicly funded sources should produce a fairly concise list, I thought. 

 

While not unmanageable, the list has become quite long. To get a rough idea of the current state of knowledge, it may be sufficient to peruse the first 1-2 (starred *) references under each heading, and to have a quick look at the abstracts and summaries of some of the others. (Given the controversy surrounding this topic I did not want to suggest just one or two sources, but show a bit the width of the scientific consensus, and to offer some titbits of related information.) ... 

 

http://ajstein.tumblr.com/post/40504136918/
 

 

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Jennifer Mach's comment, March 30, 2013 9:05 AM
I admit I haven't read this list... but for future reference, I'll definitely have a look.
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Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits - Schmidt &al (2014) - Plant Biotechnol J

Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits - Schmidt &al (2014) - Plant Biotechnol J | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Transgenic soya bean plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene... accumulated 845 μg β carotene g−1 dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w)... 

 

The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12286

 

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More freedom for Member States to decide on the GMOs use for food & feed - EU (2015)

Today the Commission presents the outcome of its review of the decision-making process for the authorisation of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) as food and feed... the Commission proposes to amend the legislation to confer upon Member States more freedom to restrict, or prohibit the use of EU-authorised GMOs in food or feed on their territory.

 

Health and Food Safety Commissioner Vytenis Andriukaitis said... "Once adopted, today's proposal will, fully in line with the principle of subsidiarity, grant Member States a greater say as regards the use of EU- authorised GMOs in food and feed on their respective territories"...

 

Since it is crucial that a single risk management system is maintained – as this ensures the same level of protection throughout the EU – the current authorisation system, based on science and the labelling rules ensuring consumer choice, will not be amended. What will change is that once a GMO is authorised for use as food or feed in Europe, Member States will have the possibility to decide on whether to opt out from allowing that particular GMO to be used in their food chain.

 

Member States will have to justify that their opt-out measures comply with EU law, which includes the principles of the Internal Market, and EU's international obligations of which the EU's WTO obligations are an integral part. Opt-outs shall be based on legitimate reasons other than those assessed at EU level, i.e. risk to human or animal health or the environment... This legislative proposal will now be sent to the European Parliament and the Council to run its ordinary legislative course.

 

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-4777_en.htm

 

Fact Sheet: Questions and Answers on EU's policies on GMOs...

 

What are the GMOs that are authorised in the EU for feed and food uses? – Besides cultivation, the placing on the EU market of GMOs and the use of their derived products in the food and feed chain is subject to an EU authorisation, conditional upon the demonstration of an absence of risk for human and animal health and for the environment, following a thorough assessment by the European Food Safety Authority in collaboration with Member States' scientific bodies.

 

As of today, 58 GMOs are authorised in the EU for food and feed uses (covering maize, cotton, soybean, oilseed rape, sugar beet). 58 application files are pending... The list of authorised GM plants and the precise scope of their authorisation... can be found here:  http://ec.europa.eu/food/dyna/gm_register/index_en.cfm

 

Is there much GM food and feed on the EU market? – The EU imports substantial quantities of GM feed... Data shows that the Union needs more than 36 million tonnes of equivalent soybean per year to feed its livestock. However, the Union produces only 1.4 million tonnes... The Union livestock sector is therefore highly dependent on third countries' production for its vegetable proteins. In 2013, the Union imported... more than 60% of the Union plant protein needs.

 

These imports mainly originate from third countries where the cultivation of GMOs is widespread – 90% originate from... countries where... soybean cultivation was GM. As regards food... many food business operators have made the choice of not placing GM food on the shelves. This may be linked to the labelling obligations of the GMO legal framework...

 

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-15-4778_en.htm

 

Alexander J. Stein's insight:

Almost 60 GMOs authorised in the EU and EU livestock is fed on more than 60% GMOs >> Where it matters most to many people -- keeping the price of meat, milk and eggs down -- GMOs are very popular and an integral part of the EU food chain... 

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Golden Rice to receive 2015 humanitarian award from U.S. government - IRRI (2015)

Golden Rice to receive 2015 humanitarian award from U.S. government - IRRI (2015) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

The Golden Rice Project has won the prestigious 2015 Patents for Humanity award on nutrition. Through this award, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) recognizes the vision of Ingo Potrykus, Peter Beyer, and Adrian Dubock for creating the enabling conditions for smallholder farmers to benefit from Golden Rice. Potrykus and Beyer invented Golden Rice as a potential complement to the nutrition toolkit in the fight against vitamin A deficiency that afflicts about 190 million people globally.

Royalty-free access to key technologies used in Golden Rice has enabled IRRI and public institutions to continue research and development of Golden Rice on a not-for-profit basis. Through this royalty-free arrangement and by breeding Golden Rice into already popular inbred varieties, resource-poor farmers can afford and reuse the seeds when they become available.

The USPTO confers the Patents for Humanity award to patent owners working to bring life-saving technologies to the underserved people of the world. Innovations in medicine, sanitation, household energy, living standards, and nutrition aimed at improving global health and living standards for the less fortunate are eligible for the award... 

 

http://irri-news.blogspot.be/2015/04/golden-rice-to-receive-2015.html

 

http://www.uspto.gov/patent/initiatives/patents-humanity/patents-humanity-awards-2015

 

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Genomic breeding for food, environment and livelihoods - Rivers &al (2015) - Food Sec

Genomic breeding for food, environment and livelihoods - Rivers &al (2015) - Food Sec | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Land use management is a central challenge for the 21st century with unprecedented and competing demands to produce food, feed/fodder, fibre, fuel, and essential ecosystem services which sustain life. Global change requires rapid adaptation in current and emerging crops as well as in the foundation species of natural ecosystems.


Revolutions in genomics and high throughput experimentation are transforming breeding so that adaptive traits in new environments can be predicted and selected more directly from germplasm collections of crops and wild species. This genomic breeding is now feasible in almost any species and has promise to help meet the need to feed and nourish over 9 billion people by 2050.


Genomic techniques can accelerate our response to food security challenges of yield, quality and resilience and also address environmental security challenges. To achieve its potential there will need to be widespread and ongoing investments in the human capital to promote genomic breeding... 

 

Advanced plant science and genomics have revolutionised breeding and crop improvement, and will continue to do so. Innovation in collecting genotypes, phenotypes, and intermediate characteristics, is allowing new crop varieties to be selected faster and more accurately than ever before.


With genomic techniques researchers can help address food security challenges of yield, quality, resilience, and other environmental and social needs. Investing in the human capital to perform genomic breeding is needed to improve food security, environments and livelihoods.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0431-3

 

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UK funders demand strong statistics for animal studies - Nature (2015)

UK funders demand strong statistics for animal studies - Nature (2015) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Replace, refine, reduce: the 3 Rs of ethical animal research are widely accepted around the world. But now the message from UK funding agencies is that some experiments use too few animals, a problem that leads to wastage and low-quality results... 

The research councils responsible for channelling government funding to scientists... announced changes to their guidelines for animal experiments. Funding applicants must now show that their work will provide statistically robust results – not just explain how it is justified and set out the ethical implications – or risk having their grant application rejected.

The move aims to improve the quality of medical research, and will help to address widespread concerns that animals – mostly mice and rats – are being squandered in tiny studies that lack statistical power. “If the study is underpowered your results are not going to be reliable... These animals are going to be wasted”... 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/520271a

 

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The Food and Environmental Safety of Bt Crops - Koch &al (2015) - Plant Biotechnol

Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safe use in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology...

 

Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals and avian species... In addition to the [non-target organism] assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects.

 

Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact.

 

Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop.

 

This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms... 

 

Cry Bt proteins, whether in microbial pesticide products or expressed in Bt crops, have been used and consumed safely for decades. The levels of Cry Bt protein in GM crops are very low and are often reduced further by food processing. In addition, extensive testing of Bt proteins... has not revealed any harm to non-target insects and other non-target species, including humans. This environmental safety profile for Bt crops largely reflects the high level of taxonomic specificity that has been achieved with Bt crops currently approved for cultivation.


Use of Bt crops provides benefits beyond insect control, such as significantly reducing small-molecule insecticide use for target pests controlled by Bt proteins, reducing applicator exposure to small-molecule insecticides, reducing greenhouse gases emissions by minimizing field spraying with self-propelled sprayers or other motorized equipment, and by potentially reducing fumonisin levels in maize grain.

 

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpls.2015.00283/abstract

 

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Carotenoid-enriched transgenic corn delivers bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects them against coccidiosis - Nogareda &al (2015) - Plant Biotechnol

Carotenoid-enriched transgenic corn delivers bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects them against coccidiosis - Nogareda &al (2015) - Plant Biotechnol | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Carotenoids are health-promoting organic molecules that act as antioxidants and essential nutrients. We show that chickens raised on a diet enriched with an engineered corn variety containing very high levels of four key carotenoids... are healthy and accumulate more bioavailable carotenoids in peripheral tissues, muscle, skin and fat, and more retinol in the liver, than birds fed on standard corn diets (including commercial corn supplemented with colour additives).

 

Birds were challenged with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella and those on the high-carotenoid diet grew normally, suffered only mild disease symptoms (diarrhoea, footpad dermatitis and digital ulcers) and had lower faecal oocyst counts than birds on the control diet.

 

Our results demonstrate that carotenoid-rich corn maintains poultry health and increases the nutritional value of poultry products without the use of feed additives.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12369

 

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The impact of secondary pests on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops - Catarino &al (2015) - Plant Biotechnol J

The impact of secondary pests on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops - Catarino &al (2015) - Plant Biotechnol J | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

The intensification of agriculture and the development of synthetic insecticides enabled worldwide grain production to more than double in the last third of the 20th century. However, the heavy dependence and, in some cases, overuse of insecticides has been responsible for negative environmental and ecological impacts across the globe... The use of recombinant DNA technology to develop genetically engineered insect-resistant crops could mitigate many of the negative side effects of insecticides.


One such genetic alteration enables crops to express toxic crystalline (Cry) proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Despite the widespread adoption of Bt crops, there are still... unanswered questions concerning longer term agro-ecosystem interactions. For instance, insect species that are not susceptible to the expressed toxin can develop into secondary pests... Here, we review the main causes surrounding secondary pest dynamics in Bt crops and the impact of such outbreaks... 


Overall, commercialized Bt crops have performed well against their target pests. Additionally, due to the high specificity and efficiency of Bt Cry toxins, it is generally accepted that any eventual detrimental impact on nontarget organisms (NTO) is lower than that caused by broad-spectrum insecticides. The reduced use of insecticides may then allow for a higher diversity and density of beneficial arthropods. Also, in theory, the reduced reliance on insecticides enabled by Bt crops can lead to a reduction in farm operations with associated economic, environmental and social benefits... 


This study focuses on the development and effects of secondary pests on Bt crops... It is evident from the literature that, due to lower insecticide applications, secondary pests that are not susceptible to the expressed toxin are becoming an increasing concern in some agro-ecosystems where Bt crops are grown... These may not be serious enough to undermine the use of the technology, but do require further exploration so that practical and economically viable advice can be given to farmers and so that regulators are aware of potential issues and risks during a crop's approval phase.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12363

 

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Study of some economically important under-utilized crops for cultivation on wastelands and biotechnology approaches for propagation and gene cloning - Kumar & Agrawal (2015) - IJRBS

With an ever increasing population, there is a very rapid depletion of natural resources. Degradation of land, which is a non-renewable resource, often occurs under conditions of rapid growth of human population. Consequently, land available for primary production of biomass is getting more scarce.

 

Therefore, it has become very necessary to explore some plant resources which can be cultivated on wastelands and tackle the problem of land degradation. Focus should be on some under-utilized but potential industrial crops like Jojoba, Jatropha, Colocynth, Guayule, Paradise tree, which are lesser known species in terms of trade and research but highly economically useful and also well adapted to stress conditions.

 

These crops being desert shrub and semi-xerophytic in nature, require less water and can tolerate saline as well as alkaline soils. Such crops are very useful for sustainable development of wastelands as these can be cultivated at large-scale on degraded lands. In these economically important crops, biotechnological approaches can be very useful for their mass propagation and cloning of genes coding for economic important traits.

 

http://www.ijrbs.in/vol_detail.php?id=19

 

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Mobilizing the Planet’s Genetic Diversity with Synthetic Biology - WIRED (2015)

Mobilizing the Planet’s Genetic Diversity with Synthetic Biology - WIRED (2015) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

1,4-Butanediol isn't exactly the flashiest product on the market... the thick, colorless liquid is one of those “industrial chemicals” that makes the eyes glaze over. But the diminutive molecule is worth... an estimated global market cap of $2 billion. Ultimately, 1,4-butanediol, also known as BDO, facilitates the production of a range of plastics, polyurethanes, and elastic fibers, making everything from skateboards to Spandex possible.

In a story that is increasingly pervasive in the field of molecular synthesis, BDO’s chemical production protocol – typically involving toxic reactants like formaldehyde – is being challenged by a biological approach. Several years ago, Genomatica secured a patent for “a non-naturally occurring microbial organism” that contains five exogenous genes “expressed in sufficient amounts to produce 1,4-BDO”... 

An important step for an evolving field, a step that was made possible through gene synthesis technologies. To design their BDO production pathway, Genomatica researchers looked for enzymes that could accomplish each reaction and placed them together into a stable host microorganism. With control over the sequences being used, the whole process took just a few years.

This rapid march to market was not the norm... in the late 1990s, DuPont engineered a microbe to produce a similar chemical, 1,3-propanediol. But it took more than a decade... “because they worked a lot more with natural sequences, strain optimization, and much more trial and error.” With a design perspective enabled by gene synthesis, however, Genomatica “was much faster in the process from idea to commercially viable product” ...

A wide range of the planet’s genetic diversity is newly accessible in the service of biomolecule synthesis. In the past, only genes from well-understood, culturable organisms could be manipulated, and even then the process was cumbersome. But as DNA sequencing and synthesis technologies have advanced, “a lot of the sequences people use... come from difficult-to-cultivate organisms or from metagenomic sequences” ... 

This unparalleled freedom has created a new sense of biological possibility. “Modifying a physical template by PCR or mutagenesis only allows you to make a limited number of changes... but de novo writing of biological information has completely opened up how far you can think, and how far you can go.” 

 

http://www.wired.com/2015/03/mobilizing-planets-genetic-diversity-synthetic-biology/

 

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Do the new EU GMO rules comply with its WTO obligations? - ILO (2015)

Do the new EU GMO rules comply with its WTO obligations? - ILO (2015) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

On March 2 2015 the Council of the European Union... adopted new rules with respect to the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that allow member states to ban or restrict the cultivation of GMOs in their territory, even if such cultivation has been approved at EU level. 

The European Union expects that most prohibitions or restrictions under the new rules will be implemented at EU level. However, member states will have the flexibility to adopt national cultivation restrictions on the basis of environmental or agricultural policy objectives or other compelling grounds (eg, town and country planning, land use, socio-economic [e]ffects, coexistence and public policy). Whether the new rules comply with relevant obligations of the European Union and its member states under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) remains an open question.

Before a GMO can be cultivated in the European Union it must undergo an approval process taking into account the direct, indirect, immediate and delayed effects on human health and the environment, in line with rules established in 2001. In addition to this risk assessment, the GMO must also comply with EU requirements on the marketing of seed and plant propagating material.

Under the old rules, a member state could ban or restrict the use of a GMO in its territory if it had evidence that the crop created a risk to human health or the environment. The opposition of certain member states meant that the EU-wide approval process has proved particularly difficult and few GMOs have ever been approved.

In this respect, it is worth recalling that the European Union's approval process for GMOs and certain related member state 'safeguard measures' preventing the marketing and import of GMOs and GMO-containing products were successfully challenged before the WTO by Argentina, Canada and the United States in 2006... the member state 'safeguard measures' violated the SPS Agreement because they were not based on a risk assessment. Since the GMO crops in question had already been approved at EU level – which included individual risk assessments... – the subsequent member state prohibitions could not be justified on the basis of the crops' alleged risks. 


Under the new rules, a member state has the flexibility to restrict or ban GMO cultivation in its territory without affecting the risk assessment for EU-wide authorisations: by seeking to amend the geographical scope of the authorisation during the EU level approval procedure; or after the GMO has been approved at EU level, by seeking to restrict it...


Under the relevant WTO rules, in particular the SPS Agreement, the European Union and its member states have committed to certain obligations in respect of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, which... can be imposed only if they are: necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health; based on scientific principles; and not maintained without sufficient scientific evidence. These measures must also be based on an appropriate assessment of the alleged risks... They cannot be more trade-restrictive than necessary to achieve the appropriate level of protection.

If the European Union's new rules qualify as an SPS measure, they must comply with all of the above WTO obligations. It is questionable whether the non-scientific public policy grounds relating to "town and country planning, land use, socio-economic impacts, coexistence and public policy" are permissible under the WTO rules for justifying a measure taken to prevent the spreading of disease and to protect human, animal or plant life or health. The specific language of the SPS Agreement and the well-established jurisprudence in respect of the need for a scientific justification of SPS measures seems to suggest otherwise.

Although the new GMO rules seek to disconnect the EU-wide approval process from individual member state consent – thereby limiting the risk of delays for implementation in at least some member states – they seem to have replaced one problematic situation with another. In situations where a GMO crop is authorised at EU level, after having passed an individual risk assessment, a member state would nevertheless be allowed to restrict or prohibit cultivation in its territory for reasons unrelated to the protection of human, animal or plant life or health. Allowing member states to ban GMOs from their territory for reasons other than health protection, without scientific evidence or a proper risk assessment, or even in direct contradiction of the risk assessment conducted at EU level demonstrating an absence of risk, appears to be problematic under relevant WTO law.

 

http://www.internationallawoffice.com/newsletters/detail.aspx?g=706428c7-8daa-4654-a92b-b05468391abc

 

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Can GMOs Save Chocolate? – National Geographic (2015)

Can GMOs Save Chocolate? – National Geographic (2015) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

GMOs may be able to save chocolate. The bigger question is whether we want them to. Chocolate... is in trouble. The average American eats about 12 pounds of chocolate a year... But all that indulgence may be coming to an end. A chocolate shortage, to the tune of one million metric tons, is predicted to hit within the next five years, the result of climate change, disease, and the demands of rapidly growing populations of chocolate lovers in China and India.


The Nature Conservation Research Center based in Ghana – the world’s second-largest producer of chocolate after the Ivory Coast – predicts glumly that within the next 20 years, chocolate will be as rare and as expensive as caviar.

Chocolate comes from the seeds of the cacao tree, borne in football-sized pods that sprout directly out of the trunk. Dubbed... “food of the gods,” cacao is just what one might expect from an ancient, double-dealing deity: a delicious and addictive treat paired with a plant that is tricky, if not downright impossible, to grow. Cacao, believed to have originated in the steamy Amazon rainforest, is reluctant to adapt to conditions other than those of home: it now only grows in a belt 20 degrees north or south of the Equator...

Along with its geographical limitations, cacao is stunningly susceptible to disease – notably to witches’ broom, a fungus that wiped out the cacao trees of Ecuador in the 1920s, and devastated the chocolate plantations of Brazil... in a ten-year period... Worldwide today, cacao farmers lose an annual $750 million to disease.

Cacao trees are also painfully slow growers. It can take up to five years for a tree to produce fruit, and as long as ten before it becomes clear that the tree has desirable traits such as disease resistance or ultra-flavorful seeds... The conventional breeding process, given cacao’s tortoise-like growth rate, won’t be easy.

Conventional cacao breeding is also unpredictable. Take, for example, CCN-51... this is the cacao variety now generally acknowledged to be the world’s best bet to stave off chocolate disaster... is sturdy, disease-resistant, and prolific, producing four to ten times the yield of run-of-the-mill cacao trees. The bad news, however, is that its seeds taste lousy... Critics compare it to rusty nails, vinegar, wood shavings, and “acidic dirt.”

Despite the drawbacks, however, some large chocolate manufacturers have come around to CNN-51. About 95 percent of chocolate is made from “bulk beans,” generally inferior stuff which is heavily processed and beefed up with sugar and added flavors, such as vanilla. For such purposes, CNN-51 is just fine; and the belief is that most consumers won’t notice a difference.

For artisanal chocolate makers, however, who depend on delectable flavor beans for their high-end products, it’s a different story. “Artisan chocolate... is like a good bottle of wine,” carefully blended by master chocolatiers to contain just the right bouquet of flavor notes... These people aren’t likely to adopt a bean, no matter how prolific, that smacks of acidic dirt.

It may be time to turn to genetic engineering. The genome of the cacao plant has been sequenced as of 2011... From among chocolate’s approximately 30,000 genes (that is, about 10,000 more than us), scientists have identified gene sequences that govern disease resistance and direct the production of helpful metabolites and flavor components... 


Some researchers point out that creating an ideal GMO chocolate isn’t going to be easy. Chocolate is a mind-bogglingly complex food, containing some 600 different flavor components. (Even red wine boasts a mere 200.) Cobbling together the right mix of flavors – along with disease-resistance, a rapid growth rate, and high productivity – may prove to be an heroic task. Still, given increasing world demand and the cacao tree’s environmentally dicey future, it may be our best chance to save chocolate as we all know and love it. 

 

http://theplate.nationalgeographic.com/2015/03/18/can-gmos-save-chocolate/

 

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Zohair Ahmed's curator insight, March 22, 3:54 PM

Chocolate has been enjoyed by many Americans and Europeans, but as more and more chocolate lovers are born (China and India) the delicacy becomes more sparce. Chocolate is in trouble, the cacao trees which produces the cocoa needed for chocolate is a very hard plant to grow, and has many diseases attacking it. The trees are extremely hard to grow, and also bear fruit in 5 years, sometimes even 10! The cocoa conventional cacao tree breading is also unpredictable, and has been criticized as lousy or a nasty taste. This makes many people turn to GMO's as a solution. GMO'S would help make then resistant to the diseases and insects, but there is an overwhelming opposition to the solution of GMO'S. GMO's are a major topic of Unit 5.

Norman Warthmann's curator insight, March 22, 8:52 PM

maybe a chocolate shortage is a good thing ?! however, probably the best bet is to grow the plants outside the native range of the pathogen.

ChocoFinder's curator insight, March 31, 8:31 AM

#chocolate #chocolateshortage #GMOs

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Golden Rice, open innovation, and sustainable global food security - Kowalski (2015) - Industrial Biotechnol

Golden Rice, open innovation, and sustainable global food security - Kowalski (2015) - Industrial Biotechnol | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Over the past 15 years, the tale of Golden Rice (GR: rice genetically engineered to express carotenoids in grain endosperm) has been told and retold many times... In a recent issue of The Economist, the esteemed Lord Taverne made abundantly clear that “Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth have blocked the commercial cultivation of Golden Rice, a food which could have prevented millions of children in Asia going blind from Vitamin A deficiency.” From a humanitarian standpoint, GR broadly exemplifies how advanced agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech) can contribute to sustainable global food security by alleviating chronic hunger, poverty, and malnutrition... Activists against genetically modified organisms (GMOs) portray GR as an apocalyptic menace that will usher in catastrophic global consequences, and use it as a rallying cry to alert the world to the presumed potential dangers and risk to our safety that it and agbiotech products to follow portend. It is therefore not surprising that GR has been analyzed and discussed in the context of regulation of agbiotech crops, with over a decade of scrupulously cautious regulatory delays... have most likely generated a significant cost, both monetary and in human suffering (attributable to preventable VAD blindness).

 

With regard to technology transfer (tech transfer), intellectual property (IP) and public-private partnerships (PPPs), GR has been analyzed and discussed in the context of patent thickets, freedom-to-operate (FTO), IP management, humanitarian licensing, and creative global access strategies. However, notwithstanding the ongoing and seemingly endless discussions and debates, the legacy of GR still remains to be determined. GR will most likely eventually move to farmers’ fields, consumers’ kitchens, and children’s rice bowls, with agbiotech continuing to advance, global acceptance of GMOs increasing, anti-GMO activists moving onto other causes (possibly dependent on donor fatigue, other more trendy interests, and the various passions of celebrity “authorities”), and the overall realization that agbiotech will be increasingly crucial for managing global challenges of food security.

 

GR represents an advanced agbiotech innovation with the potential for significant humanitarian and broad societal benefit and impact; however, moving GR from promise to reality has involved challenges. Early amongst these were proprietary concerns. As GR was developed and poised for introgression into rice varieties commonly consumed, potential IP and tangible property (TP) issues related to its research, development, product assembly, FTO, and ultimately global access and distribution were examined. As the GR story illustrates, increasingly complex agbiotech products will most likely have multiple technical subcomponents, for which the IP and TP rights will often be owned by multiple entities. This will necessitate skillful and strategic IP management and assembly to facilitate and accelerate global access, product delivery, and widespread distribution, especially in developing countries where these products will be most beneficial.

 

Given the history to date of GR, what lessons might we have learned? Perhaps there are two. First, that GR is a seminal case study of open innovation in agbiotech, i.e., strategic assembly of multiple innovation components (owned by multiple entities) via efficient and skilled IP (and TP) management and licensing, to accelerate product development and distribution. Second, that technical fixes alone (even marvelous ones such as GR) are insufficient as sustainable solutions to global food security issues. More is needed, such as an alternative paradigm that stresses systemic improvements in the developing countries towards focused and strategic capacity building in both human capital and institutional infrastructure. This will enable the developing countries to become the drivers of agbiotech access, absorption, assembly, adaptation, and deployment.

 

In this regard, major funders may need to reconsider priorities and approaches and perhaps recognize that sustainable food security will require fostering networked communities of professionals capable of accelerating agbiotech innovation, development and global access. The lessons that GR teaches are, therefore, not to repeat all that hitherto has been done, but rather to learn from the GR story and to build and strengthen efficient systems for research, development, IP management, and commercialization in order to accelerate the assembly of future, crucial agbiotech innovations for deployment globally in developing countries.

 

Where does the GR story begin? It is rooted in the longstanding observation that “polished rice does not contain any pro-vitamin A [and that] rice-depending poor populations,which cannot afford a diversified diet, suffer from vitamin A-malnutrition.” For decades this was unresolved, as conventional methods of rice breeding, due to lack of genetic variability in the rice gene pool, could not ameliorate this ubiquitously profound dietary limitation of polished rice diets and the serious consequence: VAD. VAD remains a global public health issue... About 400,000 children are permanently blinded every year in many developing countries due to VAD-related maladies... VAD also depresses immune system function, with a resulting increase in the incidence and severity of infectious diseases and infant mortality rates. Children afflicted by VAD die at 9 times the rate of healthy children... Sadly, VAD stubbornly persists as a “serious public health problem, with worldwide estimates of 100 to 200 million children affected. Between one and three million children die of infections every year, preventable if the children had not been deficient in vitamin A.” Unfortunately, in spite of concerted interventions, such as UNICEF programs to provide vitamin A supplementation, this global health challenge continues...  

 

As a potential intervention towards sustainable mitigation of VAD in developing countries where rice is a staple crop, GR was conceptualized and developed... leading to the production and accumulation of b-carotene in the grains and, thereby, enhancing b-carotene levels in local rice varieties and, ultimately, in local diets.

 

 A great deal of technical complexity was embedded in GR. This sophisticated feat of genetic engineering involved multiple inputs, of both methods and materials, potentially covered by process and product patents owned by several entities. An initial determination of potential IP and TP constraints on GR, based on product deconstruction/preliminary FTO analysis tentatively identified a group of patents and patent applications, and TP issues that might be relevant. It was subsequently determined, however, that few, if any, patents pertaining to GR were applicable in developing countries, and the same was true for several TP issues (e.g., material transfer agreements). In terms of future global agbiotech transfer, in general, it is also important to recognize that IP rights (IPRs) might not only be patents; germplasm (e.g., plant variety protection), as well as know-how and show-how possibly protected as trade secrets, can comprise a significant pool of IPRs embedded in any advanced innovation, including agbiotech products. Hence, without understanding that IPR is more than patents, transfer of advances in agbiotech to the needs of developing countries might face FTO challenges and delays, impeding access and distribution.

 

Obtaining FTO for GR was a straightforward and relatively unencumbered IP management strategy...  A crucial aspect of this innovative IP management and licensing strategy was that inventors of the GR assigned their exclusive rights to the GR technology to Syngenta, which then provided the inventors a humanitarian license with the right to sublicense public research institutions and low-income farmers in developing countries. Licenses to GR have been granted to public sector entities in Bangladesh, the Philippines, China, India, Indonesia, and Vietnam... GR continues to be under development for delivery to VAD-afflicted countries, with successful field trials in Louisiana and introgression into rice varieties grown in southern and southeastern Asia; bioavailability trials have also been performed, with very promising results. At the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), introgression of the GR phenotype into suitable Asian indica rice cultivars has also generated promising results...

 

In the context of FTO and IP management and licensing, the GR narrative offers several lessons. First, in spite of early concerns, IPRs did not significantly delay introduction and adaptation of GR into developing countries wherein VAD is endemic. Instead, safety and regulatory issues have largely driven the delays. Notwithstanding this, the resolution of the potential IP constraints could not be ignored. By strategically assigning their IPR in the GR technologies to Syngenta, the inventors enabled Syngenta, as a key IP manager, to accelerate access to integral technologies, whether owned by Syngenta or other entities, and thereby facilitate the humanitarian licensing, which then served to operationalize GR transfer to public research institutions in developing countries prone to VAD. This example of a PPP among the parties in the GR story is exemplary, indeed illustrating how a PPP’s strategy... enabled global access and delivery of GR. A carefully and professionally executed process reduced the number of patents involved to a requisite minimum, facilitated the drafting of humanitarian licenses, contributed to the establishment of managerial and marketing structures, and likely encouraged the continued development of GR... Furthermore, the FTO review of GR, in particular, illustrates the importance of proactive IP management, which includes access to patent information and the ability to analyze and categorize patent data, in order to facilitate and accelerate the development and delivery of innovations in agbiotech.

 

GR, as the vanguard for a new class of highly technically sophisticated agbiotech innovation – distinct from single gene, commercial, predominantly agronomic applications such as insect resistant Bt maize, cotton, and potato – is a model case study of the need for IP management to facilitate effective, efficient and equitable distribution to developing countries. The GR narrative is complex and demonstrates how early challenges were quickly overcome by a successfully implemented, dynamic, and creative IP management and licensing strategy.

 

However, it is notable that the involvement of VAD-afflicted developing countries came predominantly later... Perhaps this is understandable and indeed expected, given that GR is a product that derives from a developed country source. Whereas the accomplishments described are exemplary and noteworthy, the GR story intimates the longer-term limitations of such a strategy, and perhaps provides insights into what should be done to build a system that will sustainably facilitate and accelerate future agbiotech innovations to those who might benefit the most...  

 

The next wave of agbiotech, of which GR is the harbinger, will move beyond agronomic applications such as insect and pesticide resistance towards pressing issues of global food security... This necessarily implies producing sufficient food and making it accessible on a sustainable basis from year to year, ensuring freedom from hunger and malnutrition, which includes adequate vitamins and minerals, as the case of GR so vividly illustrates. Agbiotech clearly has the potential to play a key role in addressing sustainable global food security issues in this century, provided that it is supported with sound policy and coherent strategic funding.

 

For developing countries to realize the full potential that agbiotech offers, a paradigm shift is needed that entails moving from being passive recipients of aid and assistance towards becoming active drivers of identification, access, assembly, and adaptation of crucial innovations. This will require investment in building capacity and capability in human capital, global networks, and institutional infrastructure...

 

Pragmatically, in the context of research, development, access, and global delivery of a complex agbiotech product having broad societal and humanitarian benefits, what might be learned from the GR narrative? In a global market where open innovation will increasingly become the modus operandi, comprehensive IP management will require sophisticated capabilities among developing countries to identify and evaluate agbiotech innovations, including components and subcomponents required for effective assembly and operation. These capabilities must also encompass all of the possible IPR attached, with a concomitant ability to establish research collaborations, MTAs, licenses, and/or PPPs to accelerate research, development, and delivery.

 

The GR story, albeit a success in many ways, is also a wakeup call to developing countries that reliance on external humanitarian entities to address critical food security issues might not be a sustainable strategy... developed country funding sources (foundations, government agencies, and development banks) should reconsider their approaches and priorities, i.e., greater emphasis on agbiotech as a crucial, indeed indispensable, strategy for advancing global health via enhanced nutrition, and also investment in systemic (such as human capital and institutional infrastructure) capacity building in conjunction with the prevalent focus on technical fixes.

 

However, with regard to international development assistance agendas, developing countries should not expect significant changes in direction soon. Therefore, capacity building to move developing countries from passive bystanders to active participants in harnessing the full potential of agbiotech must become national priorities. Tech transfer does not automatically happen. The infrastructure, which includes a critical mass of human capital and institutional and global networks, must be built and maintained in order to accelerate access to ever more advanced agbiotech innovations, which support food security, alleviate poverty, and drive knowledge-based economic development.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ind.2015.1506

 

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Heterogeneous Consumer Preferences for Nanotechnology and Genetic-modification Technology in Food Products - Yue &al (2014) - J Ag Econ

Heterogeneous Consumer Preferences for Nanotechnology and Genetic-modification Technology in Food Products - Yue &al (2014) - J Ag Econ | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

This study investigates heterogeneous consumer preferences for nanofood and genetically-modified (GM) food and the associated benefits... We... capture the heterogeneity in consumer preferences by identifying consumer segments. 


Our results show that nano-food evokes fewer negative reactions compared with GM food. We identify four consumer groups: ‘Price Oriented/Technology Adopters’, ‘Technology Averse’, ‘Benefit Oriented’, and ‘New Technology Rejecters’.


Each consumer group has a distinctive demographic background, which generates deeper insights into the diversified public acceptance of nano-food and GM food. Our results have policy implications for the adoption of new food technologies... 

 

A key conclusion is that a sizeable proportion of people make nuanced choices about technology, and their minds are not made up about all applications of it. They are sceptical about the technologies unless the benefits of technology are worthwhile for the populace whom need or value it the most...  

 

Our results suggest that the majority of US consumers will not reject these technologies outright, but base their decisions on a complex calculus of benefits, risks, technological comfort and safety. However, we do find a group of people who oppose the application... regardless of price level and corresponding benefits... Wise policy choices and product development strategies might be to... making sure that nano-foods and GM foods provide benefits in safety and nutrition... 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1477-9552.12090

 

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Sweet potato is 'genetically modified' by nature - U Gent (2015)

Sweet potato is 'genetically modified' by nature - U Gent (2015) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Researchers... have discovered that sweet potatoes naturally contain genes from a bacterium. Because of the presence of this 'foreign' DNA, sweet potato can be seen as a 'natural gmo'. 


Sweet potato is one of the most important food crops for human consumption in the world. The researchers discovered the foreign DNA sequences of Agrobacterium while searching the genome... of sweet potato for viral diseases. Instead of contributing this peculiar finding to bacterial contamination of the plant samples, the researchers decided to study these sequences in more detail. 


The sequences appeared to be present in each of the 291 tested sweet potato cultivars and even in some wild related species. Different research methods confirmed the same conclusion: the specific sequences are not due to contamination, but they are part of the sweet potato genome. The genes in the foreign DNA sequences were also shown to be active in sweet potato, which can indicate that they provide a positive characteristic which was selected for by the farmers during domestication.

 

The natural presence of Agrobacterium demonstrates that genetic modification also happens in nature. In comparison to 'natural' gmos, [which] are beyond our control, human-made gmos have the advantage that we know exactly which characteristic we add to the plant.

 

http://www.ugent.be/en/news/bulletin/sweet-potato-is-genetically-modified-by-nature

 

Original article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1419685112

 

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Study finds that maize roots have evolved to be more nitrogen efficient - Penn State (2015)

Study finds that maize roots have evolved to be more nitrogen efficient - Penn State (2015) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Selective breeding of maize over the last century to create hybrids with desirable shoot characteristics and increased yield may have contributed indirectly to the evolution of root systems that are more efficient in acquiring nutrients, such as nitrogen, from the soil... 

Their results suggest that future breeding efforts that directly select for positive root traits could lead to yield gains needed to help feed a growing world population, while reducing pollution from excess nitrogen and reducing farmers' fertilizer costs. About half of the yield gains in commercial corn hybrids in the last 100 years have come from improved plant genetics... The other half came largely from agronomic practices, such as fertilizer use and higher planting densities...

We all know roots are responsible for the uptake of water and nutrients. However, relatively little is known about how roots do that. If we understand how roots have evolved and which specific root traits increase the plant's efficiency, then we can take the next step in breeding that can help decrease pollution, save farmers money and make more yield... 

Nitrogen is the biggest environmental, economic and energy cost of maize production. Not only can crop varieties with improved root systems increase yields and reduce hunger in impoverished regions of the world with nutrient-poor soils, they also can decrease excess nitrogen where water quality is a critical issue... 

 

The researchers found that the newest commercial varieties performed better in every agronomic environment. These varieties also had root characteristics known from previous... research to make plants more efficient at acquiring nitrogen from the soil, including fewer nodal roots, longer lateral roots and larger cortical cells... 

 

More in-depth research is needed on how specific root properties affect nitrogen uptake and on how these traits influence acquisition of other nutrients, such as phosphorous. "In addition, we need to know how the optimal root phenotype will depend on different environments – do we need the same roots in Pennsylvania as in Africa? ... 

Creating more nitrogen- and water-efficient crops is a major goal in a world that will see population reach 10 billion people within 50 years, requiring a 50 percent increase in food production without using more land... We believe roots will be central to meeting this challenge." 

 

http://news.psu.edu/story/353372/2015/04/16/research/study-finds-maize-roots-have-evolved-be-more-nitrogen-efficient

 

Original article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv074

 

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Fatal attraction: the intuitive appeal of GMO opposition - Blancke &al (2015) - Trends Plant Sci

Fatal attraction: the intuitive appeal of GMO opposition - Blancke &al (2015) - Trends Plant Sci | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it
Highlights: People tend to rely on intuitive reasoning to make a judgment on GMOs. This intuitive reasoning includes folk biology, teleological and intentional intentions and disgust. Anti-GMO activists have exploited intuitions successfully to promote their cause. Intuitive judgments steer people away from sustainable solutions.

 

Public opposition to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains strong. By contrast, studies demonstrate again and again that GM crops make a valuable contribution to the development of a sustainable type of agriculture. The discrepancy between public opinion and the scientific evidence requires an explanation.


We argue that intuitive expectations about the world render the human mind vulnerable to particular misrepresentations of GMOs. We explain how the involvement of particular intuitions accounts for the popularity, persistence, and typical features of GM opposition and tackle possible objections to our approach. To conclude, we discuss the implications for science education, science communication, and the environmental movement... 


Research shows that cultivation of GM crops does not pose any specific health or environmental risks, but instead can bring benefits to local farmers. The reason for the discrepancy between public opinion and scientific evidence needs clarification... 


Even though individual people may not always experience a personal advantage by purchasing and/or consuming GMOs, it will certainly help to inform the public that, for example, (i) Bt corn contains less mycotoxins and is thus healthier than conventional maize; (ii) herbicide-resistant crops require less tilling and, thus, improve the soil quality; (iii) Bt crops enhance insect biodiversity; (iv) biotech crops help reduce poverty in India, and so on... 


People who are genuinely concerned about the environment may intuitively adopt strategies that have the opposite impact on what they set out to achieve. GMOs can be a formidable tool in the realization of a sustainable form of agriculture. By leading people to choose the wrong adversaries and to urge policy makers to take counter-effective measures, negative GMO representations may indeed exert a fatal attraction. 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2015.03.011

 

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Cost of Coexistence of GM and Non-GM Products in the Food Supply Chains of Rapeseed Oil and Maize Starch in Germany - Gabriel & Menrad (2015) - Agribusiness

Cost of Coexistence of GM and Non-GM Products in the Food Supply Chains of Rapeseed Oil and Maize Starch in Germany - Gabriel & Menrad (2015) - Agribusiness | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

This paper aims to quantify with respect to national and EU regulations the costs of coexistence systems for genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food in Germany from the seed to the food level for rapeseed oil and maize starch intended for human consumption.


The applied model follows the principle of aggregating all the costs of producing, transporting, and processing food crops on the different levels of the supply chains and increasing the non-GM price premium of the final product for each level.


Results indicate that ensuring coexistence results in a price some 7.4% to 13.8% higher for non-GM food products depending on assumed segregation strategies in the two agri-food supply chains analyzed... 

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/agr.21415

 

Alexander J. Stein's insight:

Non-GM food is more expensive -- de facto banning GM food hurts poorer consumers (and limits the choice of all). 

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GM Eucalyptus Is Approved for Commercial Use in Brazil - B3C (2015)

The Brazilian National Technical Commission on Biosafety (CTNBio) today approved the commercial use of... yield enhanced eucalyptus... Field experiments conducted since 2006 at various locations in Brazil have demonstrated an approximate 20% increase in yield compared to its equivalent conventional variety.

This is the first genetically modified (GM) eucalyptus event to be approved worldwide and represents the most significant productivity milestone for the renewable plantation forest industry since the adoption of clonal technology in the early 1990’s. This approval also represents the beginning of a new era for sustainable forest management by enabling the production of more fiber, using less resources...

The yield increase provided by the GM eucalyptus will provide economic, environmental and social benefits.... increased competitiveness for the Brazilian forestry sector... using less land to produce more fiber... greater availability of land for other purposes, such as conservation and food production.

Partners of Suzano Pulp and Paper’s outgrowers program, including small landholders... will have access to the technology... which do not involve the payment of royalties... FuturaGene’s yield-enhanced eucalyptus has been under development since 2001 and has undergone extensive biosafety assessment prior to submission for commercial approval... 

 

http://www.b3cnewswire.com/201504101194/futuragenes-eucalyptus-is-approved-for-commercial-use-in-brazil.html

 

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Rice can "borrow" immunity from other plant species - UC Davis (2015)

Like most other plants, rice is well equipped with an effective immune system that enables it to detect and fend off disease-causing microbes. But that built-in immunity can be further boosted when the rice plant receives a receptor protein from a completely different plant species, suggests a new study... 


Receptors are specialized proteins that can recognize molecular patterns associated with disease-causing microbes, including bacteria and fungi, at the beginning of an infection. These receptors are found on the surface of plant cells, where they play a key role in the plant’s early warning system... 

Rice and other grasses that sprout with a single seed leaf, contains different receptor proteins than does the dicotyledon group... like beans, which germinate with two seed leaves...

 

Receptors introduced to rice from the Arabidopsis plants via genetic engineering were able to make use of the rice plants’ built-in immune signaling mechanisms and cause the rice plants to launch a stronger defensive immune response against the invading bacteria... 

 

http://blogs.ucdavis.edu/egghead/2015/04/03/rice-can-borrow-stronger-immunity-from-other-plant-species-study-shows/

 

Original article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004809

 

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A 90-day Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Rice Expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac Protein Using an Aquatic Animal Model - Zhu &al (2015) - J Agric Food Chem

A 90-day Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Rice Expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac Protein Using an Aquatic Animal Model - Zhu &al (2015) - J Agric Food Chem | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

In the fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and non-target insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice, or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days.


After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight, body length, and in animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, and or in the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets.


This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf5055547

 

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The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants? - Hebelstrup &al (2015) - Front Plant Sci

Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments.

 

However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms... In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved...

 

We have compared the use of starch modifying enzymes produced by GM microrganisms with the expression of these enzymes directly in crops. In summary we find that in planta starch bioengineering by expression of starch modifying enzymes directly in crop storage organs faces a number of challenges that need to be addressed further. In particular, starch bioengineering may sometimes be associated with significant yield loss...

 

Only a few studies have been carried through to agronomic field trials. The physiological conditions in amyloplasts of crop starch organs may not be optimal for starch modifying enzymes of non-plant origin, and in several studies only very small amounts of the desired product is formed. However, the method looks promising for situations where the transgenic enzymes remain inactive during crop development, so that the above mentioned deleterious effects are avoided.

 

For example crops expressing thermophilic hydrolytic enzymes, which are activated by heat, have been shown to reduce production costs and energy and water usage of grain processing. Other methods of “post-harvest” activation of transgenic enzymes in crops could be explored. In other situations there may not be a biotechnological alternative to transgenic enzyme expression directly in developing crop organs. For example starch kinases have been used to increase starch phosphate content in cereal grains and in potatoes, whereas there are currently no reports that a similar modification can be made during post-harvest starch processing... 

 

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpls.2015.00247/abstract

 

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Is the economic benefit of Bt cotton dying away in China - Qiao & Yao (2015) - China Agricultural Economic Review

Is the economic benefit of Bt cotton dying away in China - Qiao & Yao (2015) - China Agricultural Economic Review | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

The purpose of this study is trying to empirically answer whether the economic benefit of Bt cotton is dying away in China. [With] the development of the pest resistance and the outbreak of the secondary pest, it was believed that economic benefit of Bt cotton is dying away. And reduction of cotton sown area in recent years had been considered as one of the consequences.

 

This study empirically estimates the impact of Bt cotton adoption on cotton sown area. This paper uses regression techniques based on provincial level data... This study shows that the adoption of Bt cotton has positive impact on cotton sown area. On the other hand, the increasing labor cost and decreasing cotton price might be the real reasons behind the decrease of cotton sown area... 

 

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/CAER-01-2013-0008

 

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New research finds consumers willing to spend more for biotech potato products - Iowa State U (2015)

New research finds consumers willing to spend more for biotech potato products - Iowa State U (2015) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

New research found consumers were willing to spend more for genetically modified potato products with reduced levels of a chemical compound linked to cancer... The findings underscore the importance of efforts to educate consumers on the use of biotechnology in the production of healthful food... 

Acrylamide is a chemical compound that studies have linked to the formation of cancer in animals, and the FDA has encouraged Americans to cut back on foods that contain the substance. It accumulates naturally in starchy foods cooked at high temperatures, such as roasted nuts and coffee beans or the crusts of bread. Potato products like french fries and potato chips make up the biggest source...

Potato growers have tried conventional plant breeding techniques to cut down on the formation of acrylamide, but biotechnology and genetic modification have yielded more promising results...

To gauge consumer attitudes toward experimental genetically modified potato products... the results of the research showed a willingness among consumers to pay more for genetically modified potato products that reduce the formation of acrylamide than for conventional potatoes. That provides evidence that consumers are willing to pay more for enhanced food safety, even when it’s delivered through biotech methods... 

 

For instance, participants were willing to pay $1.78 more for a five-pound bag of potatoes after they received information from a scientific perspective on hazards associated with acrylamide exposure and a potato industry perspective on dramatically reducing acrylamide in potato products using biotechnology... “There was a really strong effect from the industry and scientific perspectives... Another interesting finding was that social and demographic concerns didn’t seem to matter”... 

http://www.news.iastate.edu/news/2015/03/10/biotechpotatoes

 

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Sammie Bryant's curator insight, March 22, 9:54 PM

this article relates to our agriculture unit. this article is different because while most of the kids in my class are opposed to genetically modified foods, this shows that there are some people willing to pay more because it IS genetically modified. this shows that maybe, with the advancement of the green revolution, we can make genetically modified foods have benefits: in this case, a potato may reduce the risk of cancer.

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Pesticides Not the Sole Culprit in Honey Bee Colony Declines - U Maryland (2015)

Pesticides Not the Sole Culprit in Honey Bee Colony Declines - U Maryland (2015) | Ag Biotech News | Scoop.it

Field-based study shows honey bee colonies are not harmed by realistic levels of exposure to the world’s most common insecticide. 

Colony declines are a major threat to the world’s honey bees, as well as the many wild plants and crops the bees pollinate. Among the lineup of possible culprits – including parasites, disease, climate stress and malnutrition – many have pointed the finger squarely at insecticides as a prime suspect. However, a new study... shows that the world’s most common insecticide does not significantly harm honey bee colonies at real-world dosage levels.

 

The study... looked at the effects of the insecticide imidacloprid on honey bee colonies over a three-year period. To see significant negative effects, including a sharp decrease in winter survival rates, the researchers had to expose the colonies to at least four times as much insecticide encountered under normal circumstances. At 20 times the normal exposure levels, the colonies experienced more severe consequences. 

The study does not totally absolve imidacloprid of a causative role in honey bee colony declines. Rather, the results indicate that insecticides are but one of many factors causing trouble for the world’s honey bee populations. “Everyone is pointing the finger at these insecticides. If you pull up a search on the Internet, that’s practically all anyone is talking about... This paper says no, it’s not the sole cause. It contributes, but there is a bigger picture.”

Imidacloprid is one of a broad class of insecticides called neonicotinoids, so named because they are chemically derived from nicotine. In tobacco and other related plants, nicotine acts as a deterrent by poisoning would-be herbivores. While nicotine itself was once used as an insecticide, it has fallen out of favor because it is highly toxic to humans and breaks down rapidly in sunlight. Neonicotinoids have been engineered specifically to address these shortcomings.

“Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in the world. It’s not restricted because it is very safe – an order of magnitude safer than organophosphates,” Dively said, drawing a comparison with a class of chemicals known to be highly toxic to nearly all living things.

For the study, Dively and his colleagues fed pollen dosed with imidacloprid to honey bee colonies. The team purposely constructed a worst-case scenario, even at lower exposure levels. For example, they fed the colonies tainted food for up to 12 continuous weeks. This is a much longer exposure than bee colonies would experience in real-world scenarios, because most crops do not bloom for such an extended period of time...

A synergistic combination of many factors is most likely to blame for colony declines. Climate stress could be taking a toll, and malnutrition could be a factor as well. The latter is a particular concern for industrial bee colonies that are rented to large-scale agricultural operations. These bees spend much of their time eating pollen from one or two crops, which throws their diet out of balance...

At the highest dosage levels (20 times the realistic dosage) colonies became more susceptible to Varroa mites, parasites that target honey bee colonies. A mite infestation can cause a whole variety of problems, including viral infections and an increased need for other pesticides to control the mites. “It’s a multifactorial issue, with lots of stress factors”... 

 

http://cmns.umd.edu/news-events/features/2877

 

Original article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118748

 

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