Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX
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Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX
Collecting publications, events & educational resources on the history of Africans in the Atlantic World. Curated by: Chloe Ireton, PhD Candidate in History at University of Texas at Austin, & Mike Hatch, PhD student in History at University of Texas at Austin.
Curated by Chloe Ireton
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Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570-1640, by David Wheat, 2016

Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570-1640, by David Wheat, 2016 | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it
Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570-1640 By David Wheat

"This work resituates the Spanish Caribbean as an extension of the Luso-African Atlantic world from the late sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century, when the union of the Spanish and Portuguese crowns facilitated a surge in the transatlantic slave trade. After the catastrophic decline of Amerindian populations on the islands, two major African provenance zones, first Upper Guinea and then Angola, contributed forced migrant populations with distinct experiences to the Caribbean. They played a dynamic role in the social formation of early Spanish colonial society in the fortified port cities of Cartagena de Indias, Havana, Santo Domingo, and Panama City and their semirural hinterlands.

David Wheat is the first scholar to establish this early phase of the "Africanization" of the Spanish Caribbean two centuries before the rise of large-scale sugar plantations. With African migrants and their descendants comprising demographic majorities in core areas of Spanish settlement, Luso-Africans, Afro-Iberians, Latinized Africans, and free people of color acted more as colonists or settlers than as plantation slaves. These ethnically mixed and economically diversified societies constituted a region of overlapping Iberian and African worlds, while they made possible Spain's colonization of the Caribbean."

About the Author: David Wheat is assistant professor of history at Michigan State University.

Reviews

“David Wheat’s Atlantic Africa boldly rewrites the early history of the Spanish Caribbean, demonstrating how Africans and their descendants became Spain’s ‘surrogate colonists’ in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Exhaustively researched, this book reveals the indelible imprint of various groups of Africans on the history of the Spanish Caribbean.” --James H. Sweet, University of Wisconsin-Madison

“Brilliantly researched and elegantly written, Wheat’s study of the centrality of slavery and Africans in the pre-sugar Caribbean challenges much of what we think we know about the early Caribbean, New World slavery, and the early Spanish empire. This is a must-read book for students of Atlantic, African diaspora, and colonial Latin American history.” --Ada Ferrer, New York University

“Wheat makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the Atlantic slave trade and the experiences of Africans and African-descended peoples in the Caribbean. The work underscores the continuing importance of the Spanish Caribbean in the later sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and suggests that the ‘Africanization’ of the Caribbean began well before the rise of sugar economies in British, French, and Dutch colonies.” --Ida Altman, University of Florida
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Mujeres esclavas y abolicionistas en la España de los siglos XVI-XIX. Edited by Martín Casares, Aurelia; Periáñez Gómez, Rocío. (Madrid / Frankfurt, 2014, Iberoamericana / Vervuert)

Mujeres esclavas y abolicionistas en la España de los siglos XVI-XIX. Edited by Martín Casares, Aurelia; Periáñez Gómez, Rocío. (Madrid / Frankfurt, 2014, Iberoamericana / Vervuert) | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it


Analiza el papel de las mujeres en la doble vertiente de la esclavitud: por una parte, su importancia numérica en la historia de España, evidenciando las huellas que han dejado las esclavas en las fuentes históricas, literarias e iconográficas; y por otra, el papel desempeñado por mujeres abolicionistas españolas.

Este libro pone de relieve el papel de las mujeres en la doble vertiente de la esclavitud por una parte, subraya la importancia numérica de la esclavitud femenina en la historia de España, evidenciando las huellas que han dejado la esclavas en las fuentes históricas, literarias e iconográficas; y por otra, resalta el papel desempeñado por mujeres españolas que, insertas en el movimiento abolicionista, lucharon por acabar con la institución esclavista, recuperando así la memoria de ambas. De esta forma, el libro se estructura en dos grandes bloques temáticos: el primero dedicado a las mujeres esclavas y el segundo, a la labor de las españolas abolicionistas.

 

Aurelia Martín Casares es doctora en Histoire et Civilisations por la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (París) y profesora titular acreditada a catedrática en la Universidad de Granada. Especialista en Antropología Histórica, su principal línea de investigación es la esclavitud y el abolicionismo en España.

Rocío Periáñez Gómez es doctora en Historia por la Universidad de Extremadura. Su labor investigadora se centra en el estudio de la esclavitud en el espacio extremeño.

 

 

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The Art of Conversio Christian Visual Culture in the Kingdom of Kongo (UNC Press, 2014), by Cécile Fromont

The Art of Conversio  Christian Visual Culture in the Kingdom of Kongo (UNC Press, 2014), by Cécile Fromont | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

 

"Between the sixteenth and the nineteenth centuries, the west central African kingdom of Kongo practiced Christianity and actively participated in the Atlantic world as an independent, cosmopolitan realm. Drawing on an expansive and largely unpublished set of objects, images, and documents, Cécile Fromont examines the advent of Kongo Christian visual culture and traces its development across four centuries marked by war, the Atlantic slave trade, and, finally, the rise of nineteenth-century European colonialism. By offering an extensive analysis of the religious, political, and artistic innovations through which the Kongo embraced Christianity, Fromont approaches the country’s conversion as a dynamic process that unfolded across centuries.

 

The African kingdom’s elite independently and gradually intertwined old and new, local and foreign religious thought, political concepts, and visual forms to mold a novel and constantly evolving Kongo Christian worldview. Fromont sheds light on the cross-cultural exchanges between Africa, Europe, and Latin America that shaped the early modern world, and she outlines the religious, artistic, and social background of the countless men and women displaced by the slave trade from central Africa to all corners of the Atlantic world."

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Rivers of Gold, Lives of Bondage (UNC Press 2014) | Sherwin K. Bryant

Rivers of Gold, Lives of Bondage (UNC Press 2014)   |   Sherwin K. Bryant | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

" In this pioneering study of slavery in colonial Ecuador and southern Colombia--Spain's Kingdom of Quito--Sherwin Bryant argues that the most fundamental dimension of slavery was governance and the extension of imperial power. Bryant shows that enslaved black captives were foundational to sixteenth-century royal claims on the Americas and elemental to the process of Spanish colonization. Following enslaved Africans from their arrival at the Caribbean port of Cartagena through their journey to Quito, Bryant explores how they lived during their captivity, formed kinships and communal affinities, and pressed for justice within a slave-based Catholic sovereign community.

 

In Cartagena, officials branded African captives with the royal insignia and gave them a Catholic baptism, marking slaves as projections of royal authority and majesty. By licensing and governing Quito's slave trade, the crown claimed sovereignty over slavery, new territories, natural resources, and markets. By adjudicating slavery, royal authorities claimed to govern not only slaves but other colonial subjects as well. Expanding the diaspora paradigm beyond the Atlantic, Bryant's history of the Afro-Andes in the early modern world suggests new answers to the question, what is a slave?"

Sherwin K. Bryant is associate professor of African American studies and history at Northwestern University.

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Slavery in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia | Phillips, Jr., William D.

Slavery in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia | Phillips, Jr., William D. | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

"The enslaved population of medieval Iberia composed only a small percentage of the general populace at any given point, and slave labor was not essential to the regional economy during the period. Yet slaves were present in Iberia from the beginning of recorded history until the early modern era, and the regulations and norms for slavery and servitude shifted as time passed and kingdoms rose and fell. The Romans brought their imperially sanctioned forms of slavery to the Iberian peninsula, and these were adapted by successive Christian kingdoms during the Middle Ages. The Muslim conquest of Iberia introduced new ideas about slavery and effected an increase in slave trade. During the later Middle Ages and the early modern period, slave owners in Christian Spain and Portugal maintained slaves at home, frequently captives taken in wars and sea raids, and exported their slave systems to colonies across the Atlantic. Slavery in Medieval and Early Modern Iberia provides a magisterial survey of the many forms of bound labor in Iberia from ancient times to the decline of slavery in the eighteenth century. William D. Phillips, Jr., examines the pecuniary and legal terms of slavery from purchase to manumission. He pays particular attention to the conditions of life for the enslaved, which, in a religiously diverse society, differed greatly for Muslims and Christians as well as for men and women. This sweeping narrative will become the definitive account of slavery in a place and period that deeply influenced the forms of forced servitude that shaped the New World."

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Seminario: Miradas plurales sobre africanos y afrodescendientes en América Latina y Europa, siglos XV-XIX | H-México

PONENTES: Gerardo Carlo-Altieri“La institución de la esclavitud en Puerto Rico” Raffaele Moro“Africanos, ‘afro-ibéricos’ y gente morena: la diáspora africana entre mediados del siglo XV y comienzos del XVII” Carolina González Undurraga (videoconferencia).“Repertorios jurídicos compartidos: litigios de esclavos a fines del siglo XVIII en Nueva España y Chile” Rafael Castañeda García (videoconferencia).“Evasión y resistencia. El cobro del tributo entre los mulatos, pardos y morenos libres de la Nueva España, 1790-1810” PRESENTACIÓN: 

La historia de la llamada diáspora africana en los territorios de la antigua monarquía hispánica se caracteriza por su larga duración, pluralidad y complejidad. Después de haberse privilegiado el análisis de la “trata atlántica” y la esclavitud de las plantaciones de los siglos XVIII y XIX, en los últimos años los investigadores se han interesado en las relaciones que los afrodescendientes (esclavos y libres) entablaron con las sociedades en las que fueron insertados a través, por ejemplo, de las cofradías, milicias y gremios, en sus creencias y ritos con un interés tanto en las prácticas religiosas de sus países de origen, como en la hibridación de estas en nuevos contextos y, finalmente, en la utilización del aparato jurídico para conseguir mejores condiciones de vida. El presente seminario se inscribe en esta dinámica, al abordar la vertiente hispánica de la esclavitud africana no sólo desde una pluralidad de perspectivas -jurídica, religiosa, sociopolítica-, sino también al ofrecer posibilidades de comparaciones entre varias zonas geográficas, desde la isla de Puerto Rico hasta la gobernación de Chile, en un marco temporal amplio (del siglo XV al XIX).

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Luis Nicolau Parés, "The Formation of Candomblé: Vodun History and Ritual in Brazil," Translated by Richard Vernon in collaboration with the author, (UNC PRESS NOV 2013)

Luis Nicolau Parés, "The Formation of Candomblé: Vodun History and Ritual in Brazil," Translated by Richard Vernon in collaboration with the author, (UNC PRESS NOV 2013) | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

The Formation of Candomblé

Vodun History and Ritual in Brazil

By Luis Nicolau Parés

 Translated by Richard Vernon in collaboration with the author

Interweaving three centuries of transatlantic religious and social history with historical and present-day ethnography, Luis Nicolau Parés traces the formation of Candomblé, one of the most influential African-derived religious forms in the African diaspora, with practitioners today centered in Brazil but also living in Europe and elsewhere in the Americas. Originally published in Brazil and not available in English, The Formation of Candomblé reveals cultural changes that have occurred in religious practices within Africa, as well as those caused by the displacement of enslaved Africans in the Americas.


Departing from the common assumption that Candomblé originated in the Yoruba orixá (orisha) worship, Parés highlights the critical role of the vodun religious practices in its formation process. Vodun traditions were brought by enslaved Africans of Dahomean origin, known as the "Jeje" nation in Brazil since the early eighteenth century. The book concludes with Parés's account of present-day Jeje temples in Bahia, which serves as the first written record of the oral traditions and ritual of this particular nation of Candomblé.

About the Author

Luis Nicolau Parés is professor of anthropology at the Federal University of Bahia. Richard Vernon is senior lecturer in Portuguese and Spanish at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


Reviews

"With scholarly rigor, a historically-grounded Africanist perspective, extensive research, and methodological sophistication, Pares's pathbreaking book is cultural history at its best."
--João José Reis, author of Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia

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Slave Narratives after Slavery - William L. Andrews (2011) - Oxford University Press

"The pre-Civil War autobiographies of famous fugitives such as Frederick Douglass, William Wells Brown, and Harriet Jacobs form the bedrock of the African American narrative tradition. After emancipation arrived in 1865, former slaves continued to write about their experience of enslavement and their upward struggle to realize the promise of freedom and citizenship. Slave Narratives After Slavery reprints five of the most important and revealing first-person narratives of slavery and freedom published after 1865. Elizabeth Keckley's controversial Behind the Scenes (1868) introduced white America to the industry and progressive outlook of an emerging black middle class. The little-known Narrative of the life of John Quincy Adams, When in Slavery, and Now as a Freeman (1872) gave eloquent voice to the African American working class as it migrated from the South to the North in search of opportunity. William Wells Brown's My Southern Home (1880) retooled the image of slavery delineated in his widely-read antebellum Narrative and offered his reader a first-hand assessment of the South at the close of Reconstruction. Lucy Ann Delaney used From the Darkness Cometh the Light (1891) to pay tribute to her enslaved mother and to exemplify the qualities of mind and spirit that had ensured her own fulfillment in freedom. Louis Hughes's Thirty Years a Slave (1897) spoke for a generation of black Americans who, perceiving the spread of segregation across the South, sought to remind the nation of the horrors of its racial history and of the continued dedication of the once enslaved to dignity, opportunity, and independence."

Mike Hatch's insight:

This collection focuses on slave narratives in a US context, and so could be useful in undergraduate courses with sections on the 19th century US. Also, it provides opportunity to encourage undergraduates--and ourselves--to think about the memory and trauma of 19th century plantation slavery.

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The Igbo Intellectual Tradition : Palgrave (August 2013)

The Igbo Intellectual Tradition : Palgrave (August 2013) | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

"In this groundbreaking collection, leading historians, Africanists, and other scholars document the life and work of eleven Igbo intellectuals who, educated within European traditions, came to terms with the dominance of European thought while making significant contributions to African intellectual history. Mediated through a variety of interpersonal relationships, debates, and changing ideas over the course of three centuries, the figures covered here - including Oluadah Equiano, Chinua Achebe, Nnamdi Azikewe, Mbonu Ojike, Kenneth Dike, and many others - struggled to balance the defense of Africa against Western imperial discourse with the development of an authentic African intellectual heritage, even as their identities were shaped by both forces."

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Miranda Kaufmann, "Africans in Britain, 1500-1640"- Oxford D.Phil. thesis (2011)

Miranda Kaufmann, "Africans in Britain, 1500-1640"- Oxford D.Phil. thesis (2011) | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

'Africans in Britain, 1500-1640'- Oxford D.Phil. thesis (2011).

 

Royal musician John Blanke, 1511.

Short Abstract:

This study of Africans in Britain 1500-1640 employs evidence from a wide range of primary sources including parish registers, tax returns, household accounts, wills and court records to challenge the dominant account, which has been overly influenced by the language of Shakespeare’s Othello and other contemporary literature. I explain the international context of growing trade and increased diplomatic relations with Africa and a concomitant increased level of contact with Africans in the Atlantic world. I then explore the ways in which Africans might come to Britain. Some travelled via Europe in the entourages of royals, gentlemen or foreign merchants; some came from Africa to train as trade factors and interpreters for English merchants; large numbers arrived as a result of privateering activity in which they were captured from Spanish and Portuguese ships. Once in Britain, they were to be found in every kind of household from those of kings to seamstresses. Some were entirely independent, some poor, though few resorted to crime. They performed a wide range of skilled roles and were remunerated in the same mix of wage, reward and gifts in kind as others. They were accepted into society, into which they were baptized, married and buried. They inter-married with the local population and had children. Africans accused of fornication and men who fathered illegitimate children with African women were punished in the same way as others. The legacy of villeinage coupled with the strong rhetoric of freedom in legal and popular discourse ensured that Africans in Britain were not viewed as slaves in the eyes of the law. Neither were they treated as such. They were paid wages, married, and allowed to testify in court. Those scholars who have sought to place the origins of racial slavery in Elizabethan and early Stuart England must now look elsewhere.  

Chloe Ireton's insight:

Looking forward to reading this fascinating thesis!

 

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Jacinto Ventura de Molina, Los caminos de la escritura negra en el Río de la Plata. Edición de William G. Acree y Alex Borucki. Prólogo de George R. Andrews. (Madrid / Frankfurt, 2010, Iberoamer...

Jacinto Ventura de Molina, Los caminos de la escritura negra en el Río de la Plata. Edición de William G. Acree y Alex Borucki. Prólogo de George R. Andrews. (Madrid / Frankfurt, 2010, Iberoamer... | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

Jacinto de Ventura de Molina, Los caminos de la escritura negra en el Río de la Plata. Edición de William G. Acree y Alex Borucki. Prólogo de George R. Andrews.Madrid / Frankfurt, 2010, Iberoamericana / Vervuert, 286 p., € 24.00


Compilación de escritos históricos y autobiográficos de Jacinto Ventura de Molina (1766-1837), negro libre y letrado que da cuenta del paso de la sociedad colonial a las nuevas repúblicas.

Selección de sus manuscritos de Jacinto Ventura de Molina (1766-1841), figura excepcional para la historia y la literatura de América Latina. Negro libre y letrado, Molina vivió en Rio Grande (Brasil), Buenos Aires y Montevideo. Sus escritos dan testimonio sobre una de las épocas más apasionantes de Iberoamérica: el final del régimen colonial, las guerras de independencia y el surgimiento de las nuevas repúblicas.

Indice: http://www.ibero-americana.net/files/pdf/Indice_521492.pdf

Editado por:

William Acree (PhD, University of North Carolina) es profesor de Literatura Latinoamericana en Washington University, St. Louis. Se especializa en la cultura impresa del Río de la Plata en los siglos xviii-xix y en literatura popular.

Alex Borucki (PhD candidate, Emory University) es co-autor de Esclavitud y Trabajo. Un estudio sobre los afrodescendientes en la frontera uruguaya, 1835-1855 y autor de artículos sobre la historia de los afrodescendientes y la esclavitud en Uruguay.

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The Map That Lincoln Used to See the Reach of Slavery

The Map That Lincoln Used to See the Reach of Slavery | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it
This map, made by the U.S. Coast Survey in 1861 using census data from 1860, shows the relative prevalence of slavery in Southern counties that year.
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Call For Papers: Congress on: El significado de la negritude / El significado de ser negr /The Meaning of Blackness / Significance of Being Black: H-Net Discussion Networks -

From: Paul Lovejoy List Editor: Charles Becker Editor's Subject: CFP: The Meaning of Blackness / Significance of Being Black Author's Subject: CFP: The Meaning of Blackness / Significance of Being Black Date Written: Tue, 27 Aug 2013 14:56:43 -0600 Date Posted: Thu, 28 Aug 2013 07:07:06 -0400 ------------------ Call For Papers Congress on El significado de la negritude / El significado de ser negro The Meaning of Blackness / Significance of Being Black ** Universidad de Costa Rica San Pedro, Costa Rica Febrero 3-6, 2014** The Congress is organized around the following themes. Proposals for papers will only be considered if they fit within one of the themes. Proposals must be accommodated by an abstract and short c.v. Hispanic America and Perceptions of Blacks in the Nation 1.Costa Rica, Central America and the Caribbean: Perceptions of Blackness 2.Arts, Literature, Music, and Dance in Popular Imagination 3.Economic and Political Expressions of Blackness Blackness in the Global Context 1.Skin Color in Establishing Social Distance 2.Scarification, Hair, Skin and Image 3.Definitions of Mulatto, Pardo, Ladino, Nigger, and Noir Identity, Dignity and Citizenship 1.Biographical Accounts of Blackness 2.Church, State and the Legal Code on Blackness 3.Dissemination of Knowledge of Africanity Keynote addresses by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Sir Hilary Beckles, Toyin Falola, and Paul E. Lovejoy __ Organizers: Rina Cáceres, Cátedra de Estudios de África y el Caribe, Universidad de Costa Rica Paul E. Lovejoy, Chair in African Diaspora History, York University Sponsors : Contact : Universidad de Costa Rica rina.caceres@ucr.ac.cr The Harriet Tubman Institute, York Universityplovejoy@yorku.ca UNESCO Slave Route Project -- Paul E Lovejoy FRSC Distinguished Research Professor Canada Research Chair in African Diaspora History Editor, Tubman Series on the African Diaspora, Africa World Press The Harriet Tubman Institute www.tubman.info.yorku.ca Slavery, Memory, Citizenship at the Tubman Institute www.tubmaninstitute.ca Equiano's World www.equianosworld.tubmaninstitute.ca/ SHADD - Studies in the History of the African Diaspora Documents www.tubmaninstitute.ca/shadd --
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Where the Negroes Are Masters, An African Port in the Era of the Slave Trade, By Randy J. Sparks (Harvard University Press, 2014)

Where the Negroes Are Masters, An African Port in the Era of the Slave Trade, By Randy J. Sparks (Harvard University Press, 2014) | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

Annamaboe was the largest slave trading port on the eighteenth-century Gold Coast, and it was home to successful, wily African merchants whose unusual partnerships with their European counterparts made the town and its people an integral part of the Atlantic’s webs of exchange. Where the Negroes Are Masters brings to life the outpost’s feverish commercial bustle and continual brutality, recovering the experiences of the entrepreneurial black and white men who thrived on the lucrative traffic in human beings.

 

Located in present-day Ghana, the port of Annamaboe brought the town’s Fante merchants into daily contact with diverse peoples: Englishmen of the Royal African Company, Rhode Island Rum Men, European slave traders, and captured Africans from neighboring nations. Operating on their own turf, Annamaboe’s African leaders could bend negotiations with Europeans to their own advantage, as they funneled imported goods from across the Atlantic deep into the African interior and shipped vast cargoes of enslaved Africans to labor in the Americas.

 

Far from mere pawns in the hands of the colonial powers, African men and women were major players in the complex networks of the slave trade. Randy Sparks captures their collective experience in vivid detail, uncovering how the slave trade arose, how it functioned from day to day, and how it transformed life in Annamaboe and made the port itself a hub of Atlantic commerce. From the personal, commercial, and cultural encounters that unfolded along Annamaboe’s shore emerges a dynamic new vision of the early modern Atlantic world.

 

Randy J. Sparks is Professor of History at Tulane University.

 

REVIEWS

 

“Where the Negroes Are Masters is a pathfinding work that surely will have great influence on our understanding of ‘the largest forced migration in history.’ Sparks is a diligent researcher who shows the many ways in which the Fante leadership entrenched its position in the trade… An interesting and important book.”—Jonathan Yardley, The Washington Post

 

“Carefully researched, completely engaging… Sparks recounts a story that is so telling, and so profound in its implications, that it should be explored in every school in the land—and used as a touchstone for a new way of describing the birth of America.”—Marc Aronson, School Library Journal

 

“Africans entered the trans-Atlantic slave trade as more than cargo; many operated as wily merchants integral to the far-reaching Atlantic commerce that began with European contact and the search for gold in the 1430s and shifted to traffic in humans… Unveiling African merchant elites functioning as cultural brokers, literate in English and traveled in Europe and the Americas, and operating as major forces responding to 18th-century market opportunities, Sparks expands our understanding of the Atlantic connections of West Africa’s coastal trading communities.”—Thomas J. Davis, Library Journal (starred review)

 

“This persuasive, well-researched study of the 18th-century Atlantic slave trade takes the unique approach of examining ‘the African merchant elites who facilitated that trade,’ who, according to Tulane University history professor Sparks, ‘were as essential to the Atlantic economy as the merchants of Liverpool, Nantes, or Middleburg.’ That premise may be somewhat surprising, if not outright provocative, but he delivers proof.”—Publishers Weekly

 

“If you want to know how the slave trade worked on Africa’s west coast, there is no better starting point than Randy Sparks’s brilliant urban biography of the Gold Coast port of Annamaboe. It elevates our understanding of the Atlantic in the age of the transatlantic slave trade to new heights.”—Ira Berlin, author of Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America

 

“Randy Sparks takes what might appear to be a minor port on the Gold Coast and gives us a history of the whole Atlantic Basin, through the history of one carefully defined branch of the slave trade. He shows us how multiple actors from different cultures speaking a number of different languages managed to cooperate, argue, compete, and finally succeed in knitting a transatlantic community together. This is a masterpiece of turning micro-history, with its fine detail, into mega-history of the first magnitude.”—John Thornton, author of A Cultural History of the Atlantic World, 1250–1820

 

“This well-written and altogether gripping story is Atlantic history at its best. Randy Sparks demonstrates the complexity of enslavement itself, examining the multiple processes by which persons came to be construed as property, both on the coast of Africa and in the Atlantic trade.”—Rebecca J. Scott, co-author of Freedom Papers: An Atlantic Odyssey in the Age of Emancipation

 

“Randy Sparks’s well-illustrated study of this Gold Coast port expands and deepens our understanding of African middlemen’s importance in the Atlantic economy before 1800 and of the operations of the transatlantic slave trade.”—David Northrup, author of Africa’s Discovery of Europe, 1450–1850

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LE DROIT DES NOIRS EN FRANCE AU TEMPS DE L'ESCLAVAGE- Textes choisis et commentés, Pierre H. Boulle, Sue Peabody (L'Harmattan, 2014)

LE DROIT DES NOIRS EN FRANCE AU TEMPS DE L'ESCLAVAGE- Textes choisis et commentés, Pierre H. Boulle, Sue Peabody (L'Harmattan, 2014) | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it
Textes choisis et commentés

Pierre H. Boulle, Sue Peabody
Autrement Mêmes
DROIT, JUSTICE HISTOIRE MONDE CARAÏBES OCÉAN INDIEN EUROPE Antilles France Ile Maurice Réunion

En France entre le XVIe siècle et le XIXe siècle, la vision de l'individu doté d'une liberté formelle fut confrontée à l'existence de l'esclavage aux colonies, en particulier lorsqu'à partir de 1716 une exception au principe du sol libre fut octroyée aux planteurs qui souhaitaient amener en métropole leurs esclaves domestiques. Tout un appareil juridique dut être créé pour accommoder cette exception. Le présent ouvrage cherche à illustrer les différentes étapes que prit cette recherche d'un équilibre entre liberté et esclavage.

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Networks and Trans-Cultural Exchange Slave Trading in the South Atlantic, 1590-1867 (Brill, 2014)

Networks and Trans-Cultural Exchange Slave Trading in the South Atlantic, 1590-1867 (Brill, 2014) | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

Edited by David Richardson, University of Hull, and Filipa Ribeiro da Silva, University of Macau

 

"Studies of the South Atlantic commercial world typically focus on connections between Angola and Brazil, and specifically on the flows of enslaved Africans from Luanda and the relations between Portuguese-Brazilian traders and other agents and their local African and mulatto trading partners. While reaffirming the centrality of slaving activities and of the networks that underpinned them, this collection of new essays shows that there were major Portuguese-Brazilian slave-trading activities in the South Atlantic outside Luanda as well as the Angolan-Brazil axes upon which historians usually focus. In drawing attention to these aspects of the South Atlantic commercial world, we are reminded that this was a world of change and also one in which Portuguese-Brazilian traders were unable to sustain in the face of competition from northern European rivals the dominant position in slave trading in Atlantic Africa that they had first established in the sixteenth century."

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John Thornton’s African Texts » African American Studies » Boston University

John Thornton’s African Texts

"This site is an attempt to create a paradigm for historical editing, annotating and translating written texts relating to African History. It arose out of my observations about editing, but particularly about my own experience editing Giovanni Antonio Cavazzi’s “Missione evangelica” an important text concerning the Kingdoms of Kongo and Ndongo which he finished writing in 1668."

 

Texts on the site:
1) Giovanni Antonio Cavazzi da Montecuccolo, “Missione evangelica al Regno de Congo” (MSS Araldi, Modena.  3 vols:  A, B, C) "General Introduction"

 

2) Antonio Franco, Synopsis Annalium Societatis Jesu in Lusitania ab 1540 usque ad annum 1725 (Augsburg, 1726), excepts relating to Kongo and Angola.

3) [Manuel Robrerdo/Francisco de São Salvador], Kikongo Sermon, ca. 1648

 

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III Congreso Ibero-Africano de Hispanistas Fez (Marruecos), 15-17 de enero de 2014

III Congreso Ibero-Africano de Hispanistas Fez (Marruecos), 15-17 de enero de 2014 | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it
Este III Congreso Ibero-Africano de Hispanistaspretende reunir a investigadores de todo el mundo, con especial atención a los del área africana, territorio de Hispanismo en desarrollo, propicio para un encuentro científico que permita un intercambio de información y un contacto personal que los organizadores consideramos conveniente y beneficioso para impulsar los estudios hispánicos.

El I Congreso Ibero-Africano de Hispanistas tuvo lugar en Dakar (Senegal) en febrero de 2009 y fue coorganizado por la Université Cheik Anta Diop y el GRISO de la Universidad de Navarra.

El II Congreso Ibero-Africano, coorganizado por la Asociación de Hispanistas de Egipto, el GRISO de la Universidad de Navarra y el Instituto de Estudios Auriseculares (IDEA), se celebró en El Cairo (Egipto), del 20 al 25 de noviembre de 2012.

LENGUAS DEL CONGRESO

Se admitirán ponencias en español, portugués, francés e inglés.

TEMAS DE LAS PONENCIAS

Se podrán presentar propuestas de comunicación enmarcadas en el área de los estudios ibéricos (lengua, literatura, historia y arte).

 

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Curto, Jose - Enslaving Spirits | Brill (2004)

Curto, Jose - Enslaving Spirits | Brill (2004) | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

"Long recognized as having played many important roles in the slave export trade of western Africa, foreign alcohol and its various functions within this context have nevertheless escaped systematic analysis. This volume focuses on the topic at Luanda and its Hinterland, where the connections between foreign alcohol and the slave export trade reached their zenith. Here, following the mid-1500s, an extremely close relationship developed between imported intoxicants and slaves exported, by the thousands in any given year, into the Atlantic World: first, fortified Portuguese wine and, following 1650, Brazilian rum emerged as crucial trade goods for the acquisition of slaves. But the significance of Luso-Brazilian intoxicants goes far beyond this singular fact: they also served a number of other functions, some of which were directly tied to slave trading and others indirectly underpinned the business. The volume addresses the problem of alcohol in African history, historicizes “indigenous” alcoholic beverages in West-Central Africa at the time of contact, analyzes the introduction and increasing use of foreign intoxicants for the acquisition of exportable slaves, ponders the profits that such transactions generated within the Atlantic world, reconstructs the other uses of imported alcohol in directly and indirectly underpinning the export slave trade of Luanda, and assesses the impact of foreign alcohol upon West-Central African consumers."

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Slave Portraiture Atlantic World (2013) :: European history after 1450 :: Cambridge University Press

Slave Portraiture Atlantic World (2013) :: European history after 1450 :: Cambridge University Press | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

"Slave Portraiture in the Atlantic World is the first book to focus on the individualized portrayal of enslaved people from the time of Europe's full engagement with plantation slavery in the late sixteenth century to its final official abolition in Brazil in 1888. While this period saw the emergence of portraiture as a major field of representation in Western art, “slave” and “portraiture” as categories appear to be mutually exclusive. On the one hand, the logic of chattel slavery sought to render the slave's body as an instrument for production, as the site of a non-subject. Portraiture, on the contrary, privileged the face as the primary visual matrix for the representation of a distinct individuality. The essays in this volume address this apparent paradox of “slave portraits” from a variety of interdisciplinary perspectives. They probe the historical conditions that made the creation of such rare and enigmatic objects possible and explore their implications for a more complex understanding of power relations under slavery."

Mike Hatch's insight:

Importantly his book appears to focus on portraiture as the medium for "erasures;" three in particular. 1) "the ideological erasure in which the subordinated presence of the enslaved figure is the condition of possibility for the visual fantasy of masterly subjectivity granted to the white sitter" 2) "the historical, painterly erasure that obliterated the traces of slavery," and 3) "the erasure of the role of portraiture as the technology deployed... for the illusory freezing of permanent subjection... Not only does the ghostly enslaved subject exist within and without portraiture, but the very focus of this collection on slave portraiture must exist as well in a liminal space of undecidability and paradox." Looks like this will make for very intriguing reading!

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Performing Blackness English Stages 1500-1800 :: Renaissance and early modern literature :: Cambridge University Press

Performing Blackness English Stages 1500-1800 :: Renaissance and early modern literature :: Cambridge University Press | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

"Performing Blackness on English Stages, 1500–1800 examines early modern English actors' impersonations of black Africans. Those blackface performances established dynamic theatrical conventions that were repeated from play to play, plot to plot, congealing over time and contributing to English audiences' construction of racial difference. Vaughan discusses non-canonical plays, grouping of scenes, and characters that highlight the most important conventions - appearance, linguistic tropes, speech patterns, plot situations, the use of asides and soliloquies, and other dramatic techniques - that shaped the ways black characters were 'read' by white English audiences. In plays attended by thousands of English men and women from the sixteenth century to the end of the eighteenth, including Titus Andronicus, Othello and Oroonoko, blackface was a polyphonic signifier that disseminated distorted and contradictory, yet compelling, images of black Africans during the period in which England became increasingly involved in the African slave trade."

Mike Hatch's insight:

From 2005, so it's a little older than most of the works published here, but it adds methodological depth--via literary analysis and tracing popular discourses--to the concept of "blackness" in the Atlantic.

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Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe: Princeton University Art Museum

Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe: Princeton University Art Museum | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

Old master portraits open windows into the lives of African individuals from all levels of European society

PRINCETON, NJ –The Princeton University Art Museum presents Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe, an exhibition exploring the presence of Africans and their descendants in Europe from the late 1400s to the early 1600s and the roles these individuals played in society as reflected in art. Africans living in or visiting Europe during this time included artists, aristocrats, saints, slaves, and diplomats. The exhibition of vivid portraits created from life—themselves a part of the wider Renaissance focus on the identity and perspective of the individual—encourages face-to-face encounters with these individuals and poses questions about the challenges of color, class, and stereotypes that a new diversity brought to Europe. Aspects of this material have long been studied by scholars, but this exhibition marks the first time the subject has been presented to a wider American public.


Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe will be on view at the Princeton University Art Museum from February 16, 2013 to June 9, 2013, and will feature over 65 paintings, sculptures, prints, manuscripts, and printed books by great artists such as Dürer, Bronzino, Pontormo, Veronese, and Rubens. Organized by the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore in collaboration with the Princeton University Art Museum, the exhibition includes artworks drawn from major museums and private collections across Europe and the United States, including works from both Princeton and the Walters.


“The exhibition focuses new attention on an important but poorly understood aspect of Western history and the history of representation and thus continues our commitment to expanding the borders of scholarship and public understanding,” according to Princeton University Art Museum Director James Steward. “This exhibition affords an exceptional opportunity to discover great works of art and encourages us to reflect on our understanding of cultural identity both past and present.”

The presence of Africans and their descendants in Europe was partially a consequence of the drive for new markets beginning in the late 1400s. This included the importation of West Africans as slaves, supplanting the trade of slaves of Slavic origin. There was also increasing conflict with North African Muslims and heightened levels of diplomatic and trade initiatives by African monarchs.


The first half of the exhibition explores the conditions that framed the lives of Africans in Europe, European perceptions of Africa, the representation of Africans in Christian art, blackness and cultural difference as well as the aesthetic appreciation of blackness, and slavery and social status. The second half shifts to the individuals themselves as slaves, servants, free and freed people, diplomats and rulers—the range of roles in which Africans found themselves in Renaissance Europe—concluding with a focus on the remarkable presence of St. Benedict (the Moor) of Palermo, widely revered in his lifetime but also one of the African-Europeans of the 1500s with the greatest impact today. The trajectory traced by the exhibition is thus one of movement from the margins to the center, both in societal terms and in representation, enabling us to understand not only broad shifts but also the role of specific Africans in Europe.


“Recognizing the African presence within Renaissance society opens a new window into a time when the role of the individual was becoming recognized—a perspective that remains fundamental today,” said exhibition organizer and Walters Art Museum curator of Renaissance and Baroque Art Joaneath Spicer. “We are just beginning to understand the contributions of people of African ancestry in that society, so the exhibition raises as many questions as it answers.”


Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe was organized by the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, in collaboration with the Princeton University Art Museum, with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities. The exhibition at Princeton has been made possible by generous support from Judith McCartin Scheide and William H. Scheide, Class of 1936, sponsors of the spring 2013 exhibition program. Generous funds have also been provided by the National Endowment for the Arts; the David A. Gardner ’69 Magic Project; Christopher E. Olofson, Class of 1992; the Jannotta-Pearsall Family Fund of the Community Foundation of Jackson Hole; and the Frances E. and Elias Wolf, Class of 1920, Fund. Additional support has been provided by the Allen R. Adler, Class of 1967, Exhibitions Fund; the Department of History, the Shelby Cullom Davis Center for Historical Studies, the University Center for Human Values, and the Council of the Humanities, Princeton University; the Apparatus Fund;;and the Judith and Anthony B. Evnin, Class of 1962, Exhibitions Fund. Further support has been provided by the Program in Renaissance Studies and the Center for African American Studies, Princeton University, and by the Partners and Friends of the Princeton University Art Museum. Programming is made possible, in part, by funds from the New Jersey State Council on the Arts/Department of State, a Partner Agency of the National Endowment for the Arts. This exhibition is supported by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities.

 

Exhibition Highlights

Portrait of Maria Salviati  de’ Medici and Giulia de’ Medici, Jacopo da Pontormo,  ca. 1537

Free descendants of slaves were found at all levels of European society. The little girl with her guardian is Giulia de’ Medici, daughter of Alessandro de’ Medici, duke of Florence, the latter thought to be born of a union between Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici and an African slave. Giulia enjoyed an aristocratic lifestyle and her descendants thrive today. The painting is considered to be the first formal portrait of a child of African ancestry in European art. 

 

Portrait of an African Slave Woman, Annibale Carracci (attributed),  ca. 1580

Paintings representing real individuals in servitude primarily show them in domestic roles, such as this maid from the fragment of a larger portrait. She has remarkable presence, sensitively conveyed by the artist through the ambiguity of her facial expression.”   

 

Chafariz d’el Rey in the Alfama District (View of a Square with the King’s Fountain in Lisbon), Netherlandish, ca. 1570–80

This scene of daily life in Lisbon is astonishing for the concentration of Africans from a range of social and economic levels, from a slave in chains to the knighted man on horseback. Black people made up nearly 10% of the city’s population, more than anywhere else in Europe at that time. 

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Cross Cultural Exchange Atlantic World Angola And Brazil During Era Slave Trade :: African history :: Cambridge University Press

Cross Cultural Exchange Atlantic World Angola And Brazil During Era Slave Trade :: African history :: Cambridge University Press | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

"This book argues that Angola and Brazil were connected, not separated, by the Atlantic Ocean. Roquinaldo Ferreira focuses on the cultural, religious, and social impacts of the slave trade on Angola. Reconstructing biographies of Africans and merchants, he demonstrates how cross-cultural trade, identity formation, religious ties, and resistance to slaving were central to the formation of the Atlantic world. By adding to our knowledge of the slaving process, the book powerfully illustrates how Atlantic slaving transformed key African institutions, such as local regimes of forced labor that predated and coexisted with Atlantic slaving, and made them fundamental features of the Atlantic world's social fabric"

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Dennis Ricardo Hidalgo's curator insight, November 9, 2013 2:42 AM

Another example of how the Atlantic was a highway of connections. 

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Pablo Gomez: "Bodies of encounter: health, illness and death in the early modern African-Spanish Caribbean." PhD Dissertation, Vanderbilt University August 2010

ABSTRACT: "This dissertation explores African ideas and practices related to bodies, health, illness and death in the early modern Spanish Caribbean. African healing traditions were an essential part of the imagination of bodies, health, illness, and death espoused by the early modern inhabitants of the Iberian Atlantic World. They were instruments of integration, sharing, and adaptation. In the distinctively fluid and cosmopolitan societies and cultures of Spanish Caribbean cities, Africans, Europeans and their descendants developed a common ground for the conceptualization of their bodies' nature, and of the origins of health, illness and death. Drawing on material and documentary evidence from early modern Africa, Europe, and America, my project demonstrates how African systems of belief and practices were seminal in the emergence of ideas about the body. Furthermore, it shows the central place of African mores in the rise of Spanish Colonial socio-cultural structures in the Spanish Colonies in the Caribbean."

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Chloe Ireton's comment, September 24, 2013 3:47 PM
We had the pleasure of meeting Pablo Gomez at UT Austin in a seminar this semester and talking to him about his dissertation and recent articles on healers in seventeenth century Spanish Caribbean. It is a must read for all of us working on African diaspora in the Iberian Atlantic world and thinking about key questions of knowledge transfer in urban societies in the early modern period.
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The Bibliography of Slavery and World Slaving

The Bibliography of Slavery and World Slaving | Africans in the Atlantic World: XVI-XIX | Scoop.it

The Bibliography of Slavery is a searchable database containing verified references (except as noted) to approximately 25,000 scholarly works in all academic disciplines and in all western European languages on slavery and slaving, worldwide and throughout human history, including modern times. It includes all known print materials published since 1900 in scholarly formats, as well as digital scholarly journals, recent unpublished presentations at academic conferences, professional historical sites, and major museum exhibitions and catalogs.

The bibliography includes only works sufficiently focused on these subjects to feature references to them in their titles; users of the database interested in further studies treating slavery or slaving in contexts of other subjects — Christianity, agriculture, ancient cities, general ethnographic descriptions, and so on — may expect to find ample leads to this further range of references in the footnotes and bibliographies of the works included here. It does not attempt to cover journalistic treatments, policy-oriented papers, juvenile materials, fiction, or the digital resources proliferating on the Internet, except for major academic sites. Even with the all-but limitless capacity of digital technology to hand, attempting to extend coverage of the arresting and pervasive human tendency to enslave to these exhaustive levels would render the database all but unmanageable.

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