African Americans during the 1930's
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My Letter

My Letter | African Americans during the 1930's | Scoop.it
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Hey Aunt Pam,

 

            I’m writing you this letter to tell you a little about the “ Great Depression “cause of the depression 1929-1941 “

            During the 1920’s prosperity hides trouble.  Country grew more prosperous. And consumption GNP (Gross National Product) and the stock markets all went up. Famers faced hard time. Debts from money spent on tractors and equipment.

            Also during the 1920s the stock market crash. October of 1929 investors begin to lose confidence in the stock market and begin selling their stocks. The mass selling caused panic and wiped out fortunes.

             The great depression started 1929 and ended 1941. Had weak economy, high unemployment. They loss money, jobs, and hope for money.

Yeah aunt Pam, I have learned a lot. I know you probably tired of reading but wait a min I’m almost finish.

Now I want to tell you about the gobal Depression. The U.S. loans had fed the Europeans economy. Loans also dropped during the depression. Europe faced business failure. Life during the Great Depression, Americans faced hard times.

The impact of the depression unemployment rates rose from 3.7% to as high as 24.9%. Aunt Pam, did you know many workers kept their jobs but faced wage and hour cuts.

It’s time to school you about the “ Hoovervilles “. Hoovervilles were market shife shantytowns made from tents or shacks. Built on vacant or public land.

Now it’s time to tell you about my favorite topic “ African American “ during the 1930’s. The great depression of the 1930s worsened the already bleak economic situation of African Americans. They were the first to be laid off from their jobs, and they suffered from an unemployment rate two to three times that of white. Much of the country’s African-American population lived in rural areas and worked on farms owned by white landowners. Life was considerably harder for African-Americans living in urban areas. However, there were many African-Americans who continued to work hard manual labor or working in areas inherently dangerous such as in foundries, while others worked as domestic servants for white folks.

Blacks were either excluded or forced to organize in separate unions, such as the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Black workers who tried to organize often found themselves a target of lynch mobs, in both the North and South. Only the Communist Party-led Trade Union Unity League. Seriously organized Black workers, notably in the National Miners Union. But the "red unions" of the TUUL were limited by their ultra-left tactics, which only reinforced the isolation of Blacks and leftists from the mainstream of organized labor.

 

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Education For African Americans

Education For African Americans | African Americans during the 1930's | Scoop.it
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American education in the 1930s was racially segregated. With few exceptions living patterns and customs led to segregated schools nationwide; in many places, especially in the South, segregation was the law. As African Americans were often the poorest members of communities, their neighborhood schools suffered from their inability to raise funds for teacher salaries and maintenance. African Americans were also unrepresented on most school boards and hence were unable to push for better funding for their schools. The average expenditure per pupil per year was eighty dollars; for African American students the average was fifteen. Nationally, more than 25 percent of all students were black, but they received only 12 percent of all education revenues and only 3 percent of funds budgeted for school transportation. Many white Americans—including many professional educators—embraced an ideology of Anglo-Saxon racial

 

http://www.enotes.com/1930-education-american-decades/education-african-americans

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Nathan Cushenbery-Andrews's comment, February 6, 2013 4:08 PM
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African American life during the Great Depression and the New Deal

African American life during the Great Depression and the New Deal | African Americans during the 1930's | Scoop.it
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The Great Depression of the 1930s worsened the already bleak economic situation of African Americans. They were the first to be laid off from their jobs, and they suffered from an unemployment rate two to three times that of whites. In early public assistance programs African Americans often received substantially less aid than whites, and some charitable organizations even excluded blacks from their soup kitchens.

This intensified economic plight sparked major political developments among African Americans. Beginning in 1929, the St. Louis Urban League launched a national “jobs for Negroes” movement by boycotting chain stores that had mostly black customers but hired only white employees. Efforts to unify African American organizations and youth groups later led to the founding of the National Negro Congress in 1936 and the Southern Negro Youth Congress in 1937.

Virtually ignored by the Republican administrations of the 1920s, black voters drifted to the Democratic Party, especially in the Northern cities. In the presidential election of 1928 African Americans voted in large numbers for the Democrats for the first time. In 1930 Republican Pres. Herbert Hoover nominated John J. Parker, a man of pronounced antiblack views, to the U.S. Supreme Court. The NAACP successfully opposed the nomination. In the 1932 presidential race African Americans overwhelmingly supported the successful Democratic candidate, Franklin D. Roosevelt.

 

The Roosevelt administration's accessibility to African American leaders and the New Deal reforms strengthened black support for the Democratic Party. A number of African American leaders, members of a so-called “black cabinet,” were advisers to Roosevelt. Among them were the educator Mary McLeod Bethune, who served as the National Youth Administration's director of Negro affairs; William H. Hastie, who in 1937 became the first black federal judge; Eugene K. Jones, executive secretary of the National Urban League; Robert Vann, editor of the Pittsburgh Courier; and the economist Robert C. Weaver.

African Americans benefited greatly from New Deal programs, though discrimination by local administrators was common. Low-cost public housing was made available to black families. The National Youth Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps enabled African American youths to continue their education. The Works Progress Administration gave jobs to many African Americans, and its Federal Writers Project supported the work of many black authors, among them Zora Neale Hurston, Arna Bontemps, Waters Turpin, and Melvin B. Tolson.

 

http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-285193

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Today African Americans

Today African Americans | African Americans during the 1930's | Scoop.it
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 January 23, 1837 Amanda Berry Smith, evangelist, was born enslaved in Long Green, Maryland. As a child, Smith’s father worked for years to save enough money to buy his family’s freedom and when she was 13 she moved to Pennsylvania to work. Smith became well known for her beautiful voice and evangelized throughout the South and West. In 1876, she was invited to speak and sing in England and ended up staying for a year and a half conducting religious services. After her return to the United States, she founded the Amanda Smith Orphans’ Home for African American children in a suburb of Chicago, Illinois. She continued to evangelize and became known as “God’s image carved in ebony.” In 1893, her autobiography, “The Story of the Lord’s Dealings with Mrs. Amanda Smith, the Colored Evangelist,” was published. Smith retired to Florida in 1912 where she lived until her death February 24, 1915.

• January 23, 1898 Ora Mae Washington, hall of fame athlete considered by many the finest female athlete of the 1920s and 1930s, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Washington began playing tennis in 1924 and by 1929 was the national singles champion of the American Tennis Association, the oldest African American sports organization in the United States. She won that title eight times in the nine years between 1929 and 1937 and won 12 straight doubles championships. Due to segregation and the unwillingness of white players to take the challenge, Washington was not able to prove that she was the best women’s tennis player in the country. In 1931, in the midst of her tennis career, Washington began playing basketball for the Philadelphia Tribune team, black America’s first premier sports team. The Tribune only lost six times in games played during the 1930s. Washington played basketball for 18 years. After retiring from sports, Washington supported herself as a housekeeper. Washington died May 28, 1971 and in 2009 was posthumously inducted into the Women’s Basketball Hall of Fame.

• January 23, 1915 William Arthur Lewis, the first black person to win a Nobel Prize in a category other than peace, was born in Castries, Saint Lucia. After earning his Bachelor of Science degree in 1937 and his Ph.D. in 1940 from the London School of Economics, Lewis lectured at the University of Manchester until 1959 when he was appointed vice chancellor of the University of West Indies. Key works by Lewis include “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour” (1954) and “The Theory of Economic Growth” (1955). Lewis was knighted in 1963 and received the Nobel Memorial Prize for economics December 8, 1979. He served as a full professor in the Department of Economics at Princeton University from 1964 to his retirement in 1983. After his retirement, he became president of the American Economic Association. After his death June 15, 1991, Lewis was buried on the grounds of the Saint Lucian community college named in his honor. In 2007, the Arthur Lewis Building was opened at the University of Manchester.

• January 23, 1930 Derek Alton Walcott, Nobel Prize winning poet, playwright, and visual artist, was born in Castries, Saint Lucia. Walcott earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of the West Indies in 1952. In 1959, he founded the Trinidad Theater Workshop and in 1981 founded Boston Playwrights Theater at Boston University. Walcott has published more than 20 plays, including “Wine of the Country” (1953) and “Walker and The Ghost Dance” (2002), and a number of collections of poetry, including “The Castaway and Other Poems” (1965) and “White Egrets” (2010) which won the T. Elliot Prize in 2011. On December 7, 1992, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature “for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment.” He is currently the Professor of Poetry at the University of Essex which awarded him an honorary doctorate degree in 2008.

• January 23, 1935 Robert Parris “Bob” Moses, educator and civil rights activist, was born in Harlem, New York. Moses earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from Hamilton College in 1956 and his Master of Arts degree from Harvard University in 1957. In 1960, he became field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1964, Moses became co-director of the Council of Federated Organizations, an umbrella organization for the civil rights groups working in Mississippi, and was instrumental in the formation of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. From 1969 to 1977, Moses worked as a teacher in Tanzania before returning to the United States to earn his Ph.D. in philosophy at Harvard University. In 1982, he received a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation “Genius” Award and created the Algebra Project, a project devoted to improving minority education in mathematics. In 2005, Moses was selected as one of the inaugural Alphonse Fletcher, Sr. Fellows by the Fletcher Foundation which awards grants to scholars and activists working on civil rights issues. In 2006, Moses was named a professor at Cornell University and in 2007 received an honorary doctorate degree from Swarthmore College.

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Nathan Cushenbery-Andrews's comment, February 6, 2013 4:08 PM
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Issues of Race in the 1930's

Issues of Race in the 1930's | African Americans during the 1930's | Scoop.it
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The 1930's were a turbulent time for race relations in America. Despite the decline of such organizations as the Ku Klux Klan (which had enjoyed renewed support during the 1910's and 1920's) racism was as strong as ever in the Southern states. Furthermore, as this picture alluedes to, the increased presence of Black Americans in Northern cities (where many had migrated during WWII and especially during the Depression) resulted in increased tension between the races there as well. This image of a drunken African-American passed out in the middle of the city reflects the apprehension which many rich white New Yorkers felt at the the presence of so many blacks in what they considered to be their city.

Many New Deal programs gave black Americans opportunities they had often lacked in the past, while also helping to bring their daily struggles to light for Northerners. Such federal programs as The Federal Music Project, Federal Theatre Project, and Federal Writers project enabled black artists to find word during the depression, often times creating art or stories which portrayed the historic and present situation of blacks in the South. Projects chronicling the lives of former slaves were also begun under the auspices of these programs. At the same time competition for WPA (Works Project Administration) jobs in the South during the thirties also brought to light the persisitence of inequality even in the government. Since the WPA required that eligibile employes not have refused any private sector jobs at the "prevailing wage" for such jobs, African-Americans (who were paid less on average then whites in the South) might be refused WPA jobs which whites were eligible for.
Such discrimination often extended to Hispanic-Americans in the Southwest as well. Despite such difficulties, WPA head Harry Hopkins worked with NAACP leaders to prevent discrimination whenever possible resulting in general support for the programs (and the government) by the black community.

 

Black Americans also received increased visibility during this decade for less auspicious reasons, resulting in bitter political conflict within the Democratic Party. While the South had been solidly Democratic since the Civil War, the Roosevelt administration actively appealed to African-Americans to join their party, thus alienating many Southerners. The growing divide between Northern and Southern Democrats over the issue of race came to a head in April 1937, when a bitter fight over an anti-lynching bill took place in the House of Representatives. In the wake of a gruesome double lynching in Mississippi (only one of more than a hundred which had taken place since 1930) The House passed the anti-lynching resolution, despite the opposition of all but one Southern member. Declaring that the South had been "deserted by the Democrats of the North" former Roosevelt supporters in the Senate carried out a six week long filibuster which resulted in the withdrawel of the bill in February 1938. This bitter political fight was indicative of the racism and regional conflict still firmly instrenched in America in the 1930s.

 

http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ug02/newyorker/race.html

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