David Nunan talks about the issues involved in how to decide at which age to start learning a second language. He also talks about blended learning and how technology can help younger students to become more autonomous learners.
General purpose academic word lists, such as Coxhead’s (2000) academic word list, are widely used in the teaching English for Academic purposes. However, word frequencies in some micro-level aspects of academic discourse are yet to be determined, such as subject-specific word lists in some areas. This study has generated knowledge of noun frequencies in sentence transitions containing anaphoric lexical references to the preceding sentence.
Investigating a corpus of approximately 5.6 million words of academic texts from the Social Sciences and Humanities has led to a list of 71 nouns most frequently used in cohesive nominal groups in these areas. This list was compiled with Antconc (Anthony, 2014) by examining eight syntactic structures containing an anaphoric determiner and noun. The list can be used alongside more general purpose lists to support L2 academic writing development. As well as the main list, two significant sub-lists have been identified: a list of items particularly useful for anaphoric references to a citation and a group of nouns that nominalise processes.
Four frequently occurring nouns in the data have been identified as forming partitive constructions with a cohesive aspect enabling the writer to narrow or broaden the range of analysis in the writing. In addition, there is a proposed order in which the eight cohesive structures investigated could be introduced within an EAP syllabus.
Instructed Second Language Acquisition is a peer-reviewed Journal that, twice a year, publishes research with a number of implications for language instruction. Second language acquisition is a rich and varied enterprise, carried out by researchers, whose interests and training often lie in broader disciplines of linguistics, psychology, sociology, and education. Second language research findings might have a direct application to instructional decisions or provide insights into the learning process that serves as a resource to inform teaching practice. Knowing how languages are learned will help language instructors develop a more innovative and effective way to teach a language and to create the necessary conditions for learners to learn more efficiently and appropriately. The overall aim of this Journal is to provide an opportunity for researchers, second and foreign language educators, and other language practitioners and policy makers to publish and read second language acquisition research that has direct relevance and impact for language teaching. Established in 2016, Instructed Second Language Acquisition, the journal is a forum for reporting and for critical discussion of language research and practice across a wide range of languages and international contexts. It welcomes quantitative and qualitative research to address the role of external manipulation (e.g., instruction, learner self-directed learning, input manipulation) on second language development.
Chomsky’s ideas have profoundly affected linguistics and mind-science in general. Critics attacked his theories from the get-go and are still attacking, paradoxically demonstrating his enduring dominance. Some attacks are silly. For example, in his new book A Kingdom of Speech Tom Wolfe asserts that both Darwin and “Noam Charisma” were wrong.
Growing up in a small town in North Carolina, Lauren Collins never needed to speak a foreign language outside of high school Spanish classes. It wasn’t until she met her French-speaking husband and moved to Switzerland that she felt the need to become bilingual. She offers her humble opinion on the value of learning a new language.
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