Adolescent Development
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Adolescent Development
Issues related to adolescent development, education, and support.
Curated by Lisa Medoff
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Pets Help People Manage The Pain Of Serious Mental Illness

Pets Help People Manage The Pain Of Serious Mental Illness | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
Any pet owner will tell you that their animal companions comfort and sustain them when life gets rough. This may be especially true for people with serious mental illness, a study finds. When people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were asked who or what helped them manage the condition, many said it was pets that helped the most.

"When I'm feeling really low they are wonderful because they won't leave my side for two days," one study participant with two dogs and two cats, "They just stay with me until I am ready to come out of it."

Another person said of their pet birds: "If I didn't have my pets I think I would be on my own. You know what I mean, so it's — it's nice to come home and, you know, listen to the birds singing and that, you know."

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Adolescent Abstention From Delinquency: Examining the Mediating Role of Time Spent With (Delinquent) Peers

Adolescent Abstention From Delinquency: Examining the Mediating Role of Time Spent With (Delinquent) Peers | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
Research consistently identifies a group of adolescents who refrain from minor delinquency entirely. Known as abstainers, studying these adolescents is an underexplored approach to understanding adolescent minor delinquency. In this paper, we tested hypotheses regarding adolescent delinquency abstention derived from the developmental taxonomy model and social control theory in 497 adolescents (283 boys) aged 13–18 comparing three groups of adolescents: abstainers, experimenters, and a delinquent group. We found that the relation between adolescent abstention and personal characteristics (i.e., conscientiousness and anxiety) was (partially) mediated by the amount of time spent with peers. Furthermore, the level of best friend delinquency moderated the relation between time spent with peers and delinquency abstention. Results support aspects of both theoretical frameworks.
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Adolescents’ Socio‐Motivational Relationships With Teachers, Amygdala Response to Teacher's Negative Facial Expressions, and Test Anxiety

Adolescents’ Socio‐Motivational Relationships With Teachers, Amygdala Response to Teacher's Negative Facial Expressions, and Test Anxiety | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
The amygdala is essential for processing emotions, including the processing of aversive faces. The aim of this multimethodological study was to relate the amygdala reactivity of students (N = 88) toward teachers’ fearful and angry faces, to students’ relationship with their teachers. Furthermore, students’ neural responses during the perception of teachers’ faces were tested as predictors of test anxiety (controlling for neuroticism as a potential trait anxiety effect). Multiple regression analysis revealed that students reporting high-quality teacher–student relationships showed stronger amygdala activity toward fearful faces, which was related to worry. Furthermore, students with high levels of neuroticism tended to perceive their teachers as motivators and showed higher amygdala activity toward angry faces, which was related to the measures of emotionality.
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The Meaningful Roles Intervention: An Evolutionary Approach to Reducing Bullying and Increasing Prosocial Behavior

The Meaningful Roles Intervention: An Evolutionary Approach to Reducing Bullying and Increasing Prosocial Behavior | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
Bullying is a problem that affects adolescents worldwide. Efforts to prevent bullying have been moderately successful at best, or iatrogenic at worst. We offer an explanation for this limited success by employing an evolutionary-psychological perspective to analyze antibullying interventions. We argue that bullying is a goal-directed behavior that is sensitive to benefits as well as costs, and that interventions must address these benefits. This perspective led us to develop a novel antibullying intervention, Meaningful Roles, which offers bullies prosocial alternatives—meaningful roles and responsibilities implemented through a school jobs program and reinforced through peer-to-peer praise notes—that effectively meet the same status goals as bullying behavior. We describe this new intervention and how its theoretical evolutionary roots may be applicable to other intervention programs
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Decision-making style and response to parental involvement in brief interventions for adolescent substance use.

Decision-making style and response to parental involvement in brief interventions for adolescent substance use. | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
Adolescent decision making has been previously identified as risk factor for substance abuse as well as a proximal intervention target. The study sought to extend this research by evaluating the role of decision-making style in response to parent involvement in brief substance abuse interventions. Adolescents (aged 12 to 18 years; n = 259) identified in a school setting as abusing alcohol and marijuana were randomly assigned to complete 1 of 2 brief interventions (BIs), either a 2-session adolescent-only program (BI-A) or the 2-session adolescent program with an additional parent session (BI-AP). Interventions were manualized and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescent decision-making style was evaluated at intake, and alcohol and marijuana use were evaluated at intake and at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Supporting past research with these interventions, BI-AP demonstrated overall stronger outcomes for marijuana when compared with BI-A. Across both intervention models, an adaptive decision-making style (i.e., constructive, rational) assessed at intake predicted greater reductions in marijuana use. A significant moderation effect emerged for alcohol outcomes. Adolescents with maladaptive decision-making tendencies (i.e., impulsive/careless, avoidant) demonstrated the largest benefit from the parental involvement in BI-AP, whereas those with a less impulsive style derived little additional benefit from parental involvement in regard to alcohol use outcomes. Implications for the tailoring of brief interventions for adolescent substance abuse are discussed
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Parental psychopathology linked to self‐harm in teens

Parental psychopathology linked to self‐harm in teens | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
The researchers used the baseline wave of the Adolescent Development of Emotion and Personality Traits (ADEPT) study of 550 adolescent girls (mean age: 14.39 years) and their biological parents. First, they looked at whether lifetime psychiatric diagnoses of the parents, as well as personal and clinical traits, were associated with NSSI in their adolescent children. For personality and clinical traits, they looked at rumination, self-criticism, and emotional reliance.

The researchers also looked at whether adolescent history of psychiatric illness, personality, and clinical traits had an effect on the associations between parental characteristics and adolescent NSSI.
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Parental substance use disorder, symptoms of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), self-criticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness were linked to adolescent NSSI. Parental mood and anxiety disorders and neuroticism were not related to adolescent NSSI.
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This Video About High School Love Gets Extremely Fucking Real

This Video About High School Love Gets Extremely Fucking Real | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
This video begins as a sweet, captivating ode to high school love—and then it gets very, very real. I’m hesitant to call what happens at the end a “twist,” because nothing about the scenario ought to be construed as a lighthearted game. Watch the whole thing.

The video, created by the ad firm BBDO New York on behalf of Sandy Hook Promise, is intended to to educate viewers on the importance of awareness.

“When you don’t know what to look for, or can’t recognize what you are seeing, it can be easy to miss warning signs or dismiss them as unimportant. That can lead to tragic consequences,” Nicole Hockley, co-founder and managing director of Sandy Hook Promise, told Adweek.
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Enduring Mental Health: Prevalence and Prediction.

Enduring Mental Health: Prevalence and Prediction. | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and predictors of enduring mental health unknown. We turn to the population-representative Dunedin cohort, followed from birth to midlife, to compare people never-diagnosed with mental disorder (N = 171; 17% prevalence) to those diagnosed at 1–2 study waves, the cohort mode (N = 409). Surprisingly, compared to this modal group, never-diagnosed Study members were not born into unusually well-to-do families, nor did their enduring mental health follow markedly sound physical health, or unusually high intelligence. Instead, they tended to have an advantageous temperament/personality style, and negligible family history of mental disorder. As adults, they report superior educational and occupational attainment, greater life satisfaction, and higher-quality relationships. Our findings draw attention to “enduring mental health” as a revealing psychological phenotype and suggest it deserves further study
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How Parents Can Help Kids With Dyslexia Succeed In School

How Parents Can Help Kids With Dyslexia Succeed In School | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
Dyslexia is a reading problem, but its influence can be felt far beyond the classroom. It often disrupts home life, making dinner time and bedtime a struggle. Experts say there are three things that can help.
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Temporal ordering effects of adolescent depression, relational aggression, and victimization over six waves: Fully latent reciprocal effects models.

Temporal ordering effects of adolescent depression, relational aggression, and victimization over six waves: Fully latent reciprocal effects models. | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
The temporal ordering of depression, aggression, and victimization has important implications for theory, policy, and practice. For a representative sample of high school students (Grades 7–10; N = 3,793) who completed the same psychometrically strong, multiitem scales 6 times over a 2-year period, there were reciprocal effects between relational-aggression and relational-victimization factors: aggression led to subsequent victimization and victimization led to subsequent aggression. After controlling for prior depression, aggression, and victimization, depression had a positive effect on subsequent victimization, but victimization had no effect on subsequent depression. Aggression neither affected nor was affected by depression. The results suggest that depression is a selection factor that leads to victimization, but that victimization has little or no effect on subsequent depression beyond what can be explained by the preexisting depression. In support of developmental equilibrium, the results were consistent across the 6 waves.
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Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in children with autism spectrum disorder

Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in children with autism spectrum disorder | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
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Heavy Screen Time Rewires Young Brains, For Better And Worse

Heavy Screen Time Rewires Young Brains, For Better And Worse | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
There's new evidence that excessive screen time early in life can change the circuits in a growing brain.

Scientists disagree, though, about whether those changes are helpful, or just cause problems. Both views emerged during the Society for Neuroscience meeting in San Diego this week.

The debate centered on a study of young mice exposed to six hours daily of a sound and light show reminiscent of a video game. The mice showed "dramatic changes everywhere in the brain," said Jan-Marino Ramirez, director of the Center for Integrative Brain Research at Seattle Children's Hospital.
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Experiencing Racial Microaggressions Influences Suicide Ideation Through Perceived Burdensomeness in African Americans.

Experiencing Racial Microaggressions Influences Suicide Ideation Through Perceived Burdensomeness in African Americans. | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
Racial microaggressions are a contemporary form of subtle discrimination that occur in everyday exchanges, and are associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes, including suicide ideation. Previous work (e.g., Torres-Harding, Andrade, & Romero Diaz, 2012) has identified 6 dimensions of racial microaggressions: invisibility, criminality, low-achieving/undesirable culture, sexualization, foreigner/not belonging, and environmental invalidations. The current study examined whether the 6 dimensions of racial microaggressions were associated with increased suicide ideation through perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness among 135 African American young adults. Results indicated that perceived burdensomeness, but not thwarted belongingness, mediated the relationship between 3 racial microaggression dimensions (i.e., invisibility, low-achievement/undesirable culture, and environmental invalidations) and suicide ideation. These results imply that for African American college students, experiencing certain dimensions of racial microaggressions was associated with higher levels of perceived burdensomeness, which in turn was related to increased levels of suicide ideation. Clinical and societal implications are discussed. This study found that specific types of racial microaggressions were associated with higher levels of perceptions of being a burden on others, which in turn was associated with higher levels of suicide ideation in a sample of African Americans. These findings are important as they demonstrate 1 possible avenue through which racial microaggressions can negatively impact mental health.
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Letting Oneself Go Isn't Enough: Cognitively Oriented Expressive Writing Reduces Preadolescent Peer Problems

Letting Oneself Go Isn't Enough: Cognitively Oriented Expressive Writing Reduces Preadolescent Peer Problems | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
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Neighborhood Qualification of the Association Between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories Among Mexican‐Origin Father–Adolescent Dyads

Neighborhood Qualification of the Association Between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories Among Mexican‐Origin Father–Adolescent Dyads | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father–adolescent dyads (N = 462). Compared to their counterparts in low-adversity neighborhoods, adolescents in high-adversity neighborhoods experienced greater initial benefits from authoritative fathering, greater long-term benefits from no-nonsense fathering, and fewer costs associated with reduced involvement fathering. The combined influences of alternative paternal parenting styles and neighborhood adversity may set ethnic and racial minority adolescents on different developmental pathways to competence.
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Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low‐Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine

Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low‐Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks.
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'Your Kids Are Not An Experiment'; Surgeon General Says No Vaping For Young People

'Your Kids Are Not An Experiment'; Surgeon General Says No Vaping For Young People | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
The U.S. surgeon general said Thursday that e-cigarette use poses a significant and avoidable health risk to young people.

"We already know that e-cigarettes have the potential to cause lasting harm to the health of young users," said Surgeon General Vivek Murthy. "Most contain nicotine, a highly addictive drug that can damage normal development of the brain – a process that continues until about age 25."

Murthy's comments were part of a report released Thursday on rising e-cigarette use by people under 25.
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Where Students Get Two Years of College in High School for Free

Where Students Get Two Years of College in High School for Free | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
BALTIMORE—In the last few years, hundreds of schools across the United States have endorsed the idea that giving teens access to college classes while they’re still in the relative cocoon of high school helps ease the transition to higher education. So it wouldn’t be unreasonable for casual onlookers to think of “early college” as a relatively recent invention.


Understanding the opportunity and achievement gaps in U.S. universities
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Yet Simon’s Rock, a tiny private school nestled in the western Massachusetts town of Great Barrington (perhaps best known as the birthplace of W.E.B. Du Bois), has been piloting the concept for some 50 years. Now, as more cities and states contemplate the general idea, Simon’s Rock is looking to preserve and spread its definition of early college to more students—one grounded in the liberal-arts education it worries too many newer early colleges are eschewing.
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Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health.

Latino parent acculturation stress: Longitudinal effects on family functioning and youth emotional and behavioral health. | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
Latino parents can experience acculturation stressors, and according to the Family Stress Model (FSM), parent stress can influence youth mental health and substance use by negatively affecting family functioning. To understand how acculturation stressors come together and unfold over time to influence youth mental health and substance use outcomes, the current study investigated the trajectory of a latent parent acculturation stress factor and its influence on youth mental health and substance use via parent-and youth-reported family functioning. Data came from a 6-wave, school-based survey with 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Latino parents (74% mothers, Mage = 41.09 years) and their adolescents (47% female, Mage = 14.51 years). Parents’ reports of discrimination, negative context of reception, and acculturative stress loaded onto a latent factor of acculturation stress at each of the first 4 time points. Earlier levels of and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted worse youth-reported family functioning. Additionally, earlier levels of parent acculturation stress predicted worse parent-reported family functioning and increases in parent acculturation stress predicted better parent-reported family functioning. While youth-reported positive family functioning predicted higher self-esteem, lower symptoms of depression, and lower aggressive and rule-breaking behavior in youth, parent-reported family positive functioning predicted lower youth alcohol and cigarette use. Findings highlight the need for Latino youth preventive interventions to target parent acculturation stress and family functioning.
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Do Video Games Make Us More Cruel?

Do Video Games Make Us More Cruel? | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
t often seems that the more thoughtfully or seriously someone writes about video games, the less they end up wanting to go on writing about them. This can result not only from the toxic, defensive raging of a substantial part of gaming’s fan base but also from a dawning realization that many of the most popular and sophisticated games—perhaps especially those games—remove their players from their humanity in some immeasurable way. In a “good-bye to all that” piece about Grand Theft Auto V published in Grantland in 2013, Tom Bissell confessed that as obsessively as he’d played the game for the past few days, he had, at last, wearied of its “defiantly puerile” mentality. “Maybe the biggest sin of the GTA games,” Bissell went on, “is the cheerful, spiteful way they rub our faces in what video games make us willing to do, in what video games are.”
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The Hilarious World of Depression by American Public Media on iTunes

The Hilarious World of Depression by American Public Media on iTunes | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
A show about clinical depression... with laughs? Well, yeah. Depression is an incredibly common and isolating disease experienced by millions, yet often stigmatized by society. The Hilarious World of Depression is a series of frank, moving, and, yes, funny conversations with top comedians who have dealt with this disease, hosted by veteran humorist and public radio host John Moe. Join guests such as Maria Bamford, Paul F. Tompkins, Andy Richter, and Jen Kirkman to learn how they’ve dealt with depression and managed to laugh along the way. If you have not met the disease personally, it’s almost certain that someone you know has, whether it’s a friend, family member, colleague, or neighbor. Depression is a vicious cycle of solitude and stigma that leaves people miserable and sometimes dead. Frankly, we’re not going to put up with that anymore. The Hilarious World of Depression is not medical treatment and should not be seen as a substitute for therapy or medication. But it is a chance to gain some insight, have a few laughs, and realize that people with depression are not alone and that together, we can all feel a bit better. The Hilarious World of Depression is made possible by a grant from HealthPartners’ and its Make It Okay campaign which works to reduce the stigma of mental health. www.makeitok.org
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Reducing Barriers to Mental Health Care for Student-Athletes: An Integrated Care Model.

Reducing Barriers to Mental Health Care for Student-Athletes: An Integrated Care Model. | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
Research suggests that National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I student-athletes have higher levels of stress and other behavioral health issues, including substance use, than nonathletes. For several reasons, student-athletes may be less likely to admit to behavioral health issues and seek mental health care. Integrated care is a model of care that integrates behavioral health into a medical practice. This article explores the newly released NCAA Best Mental Health Practice guidelines and the application of integrated care to a Division I athletic training room setting using the three-worldview framework for successful integration, incorporating clinical outcomes, operational reliability, and financial stability.
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Stanford researchers find students have trouble judging the credibility of information online 

Stanford researchers find students have trouble judging the credibility of information online  | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
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Neural Interaction Between Risk Sensitivity and Cognitive Control Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Late Adolescents 

Neural Interaction Between Risk Sensitivity and Cognitive Control Predicting Health Risk Behaviors Among Late Adolescents  | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
he developmental period of adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors (HRBs). Based on theoretical models that emphasize the moderating role of cognitive control, this study examined how neural correlates of cognitive control and risk sensitivity interact to predict HRBs among late adolescents (17–20 years). Neuroimaging data indicate that risk-related hemodynamic activity in the anterior insula during anticipation of uncertain outcomes predicts HRBs among late adolescents exhibiting greater dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity during a cognitive interference task but not among late adolescents requiring less dACC activity. These results present neural evidence for a significant moderating effect of cognitive control on the link between risk sensitivity and HRBs among late adolescents.
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Traumatic stress changes brains of boys, girls differently

Traumatic stress changes brains of boys, girls differently | Adolescent Development | Scoop.it
A brain region that integrates emotions and actions appears to undergo accelerated maturation in adolescent girls with PTSD, but not in boys with the condition, a Stanford study has found.
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