Acupuncture and the respiratory system
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Acupuncture Targets Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Drug

Acupuncture Targets Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Drug | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
Acupuncture targets a major lung cancer chemotherapy drug and improves delivery.

 

New research confirms that acupuncture enhances the delivery of an important chemotherapy drug for the treatment of lung cancer to the lungs while simultaneously protecting the liver and kidneys. Paclitaxel, also known as Taxol, is a mitotic inhibitor used in the treatment of lung, ovarian and breast cancer along with other types including cancers of the head and neck. Extensive research has been underway to minimize the adverse side effects of paclitaxel including mixing it with DHA. One focus of this type of research is to improve cell targeting so that only the regions requiring the drug are affected. In this experiment, researchers discovered that specific acupuncture points have specific effects on targeting and delivery of paclitaxel. The investigative team notes that acupuncture at specific acupuncture points influences paclitaxel tissue distribution with unique characteristics.

Using high-performance liquid chromatography, the researchers discovered that applying acupuncture needles at acupoint Feishu (BL13) targeted paclitaxel to the lungs more effectively than when using acupoint Lingtai (DU10). Both acupuncture points increased the time of metabolism while significantly reducing distribution of paclitaxel to the liver and kidneys. 

The laboratory experiment followed National Institutes of Health guidelines for the care and use of animals in the experimental setting. The team notes that care was given to minimize the suffering of the laboratory mice. Electroacupuncture was applied with 2 Hz rectangular waveform at 7-8 mA for 10 minutes, once per day.

The researchers note that electroacupuncture influences “tissue distribution of Paclitaxel.” Additionally, they posit that tissue distribution changes may be one of the effective action mechanisms by which acupuncture exerts its therapeutic effects during chemotherapy. They concluded, “Acupuncture at Feishu acupoint facilitated the delivery of Paclitaxel to lung more effectively than did acupuncture at Lingtai acupoint.” In addition, both acupuncture points “resulted in an obvious decrease of Paclitaxel distribution in kidney and delayed Paclitaxel distribution in liver.” 

The research team evaluated the results in terms of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. They note that BL13 (Feishu) is commonly used by licensed acupuncturists for the treatment of lung related disorders. They note that Feishu is translated as lung acupoint and is now in common use by licensed acupuncturists for the treatment of side effects due to lung cancer chemotherapy. The researchers add that BL13, according to TCM principles, treats lung disorders by “activation and regulation of qi (energy flow in the human body). Based on these theories, the mechanisms of acupuncture’s therapeutic properties are considered to be linked to the modulation of lung function and the tissue distribution of chemotherapies.”

BL13 is located on the upper back lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the 3rd thoracic vertebra. It is 1.5 cun lateral to the spine and a cun is approximately 1 inch, however, this type of measurement is variable based on individual human anatomy. BL13 is a lung back shu point thereby designating it as one of the more important lung related points in TCM. According to TCM principles, BL13 regulates lung qi and reduces fever. It is indicated for the treatment of asthma, coughing, chest pain, night sweating, spontaneous sweating and afternoon fevers. This point is never needled deeply, especially perpendicularly or obliquely away from the spine. The standard needling method on humans is 0.5-1 cun obliquely towards the spine or transverse-oblique needling from 1-1.5 cun. 

Given BL13’s status as a lung back shu point, it is not surprising that the researchers discovered that it is more effective in targeting the chemotherapy agent towards the lungs. The other point studied, DU10, is located below the spinous process of T6. It is also used by licensed acupuncturists for the treatment of lung conditions such as cough and wheezing. It is also indicated for the treatment of toxins. This point is indicated for the treatment of carbuncles and furuncles (lymphangitis, red-thread boil), other toxic skin conditions and for the treatment of neck and back stiffness and pain.

Equipment
Paclitaxel was obtained from USA Abbott Aires Biosciences (Illinois) and Merk’s acetonitrile was used in the experiment. The team used a high-speed centrifuge, electric glass homogenizer and a Swiss made electronic analytical balancer. The high-performance liquid chromatograph was from Dionex, USA, and the electroacupuncture machine was from Shanghai Medical Apparatus and Instruments Factory, China. The acupuncture needles used in the study were from the Shanghai Shunfeng Medical Instrument Company.

Reference:
Andre, Kim. "Effects of acupuncture on the tissue distribution of Paclitaxel in lung carcinoma mice." Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine (2014): 1-4.

 

 

- See more at: http://www.healthcmi.com/Acupuncture-Continuing-Education-News/1334-acupuncture-targets-lung-cancer-chemotherapy-drug#sthash.Tkm5Tp74.dpuf

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EVIDENCE MAP OF ACUPUNCTURE FOR WELLNESS - Evidence Map of Acupuncture - NCBI Bookshelf

EVIDENCE MAP OF ACUPUNCTURE FOR WELLNESS - Evidence Map of Acupuncture - NCBI Bookshelf | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

Legend: The bubble plot shows an estimate of the evidence base for wellness-related indications judging from systematic reviews and recent large trials. The plot shows the estimated size of the literature (y-axis, number of RCTs included in largest review), the estimated effect (x-axis), and the confidence in the estimate (bubble size).

The figure provides a visual overview of the evidence base of acupuncture for wellness indications. The bubble plot depicts the estimated research volume based on the number of acupuncture RCTs included in the largest review for each of the differentiated clinical areas, the estimated treatment effect compared to passive control, and the confidence in the effect estimate, judging from published systematic reviews. Effect size estimates of the treatment effect based on specific individual reviews, as well as reason for classifying the evidence base as inconclusive, are reported in the narrative synthesis. The evidence map used the clinical topics as addressed in existing reviews and individual research studies may have contributed to a number of included reviews and clinical indications. All 3 depicted dimensions (literature size, effect, and confidence) are estimates and can only provide a broad overview of the evidence base.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: WELLNESS

As shown in the bubble plot, the largest research area was the indication insomnia. We identified 7 recent systematic reviews by independent author groups; the largest review, published in 2009, included 46 acupuncture RCTs.24 A 2012 Cochrane review reported that compared with other treatment alone, acupuncture as an adjunct might marginally increase the proportion of people with improved sleep quality (OR 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 4.9) but concluded that the current evidence is not sufficiently rigorous to support or refute acupuncture for treating insomnia. The role of acupuncture in obesity has also been evaluated in a large number of studies; a 2012 review included 44 primarily non-PubMed indexed acupuncture RCTs.60 The review reported a risk ratio of 2.14 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.90) in favor of body weight reduction with a mean difference in body weight reduction of 2.76kg (95% CI: 1.61, 3.83) but noted that the majority of included studies was of low quality. A competing review including 31 acupuncture RCTs concluded that results suggested that acupuncture is an effective treatment for obesity; however, the amount of evidence is not fully convincing because of the poor methodological quality of trials reviewed.122 Smoking cessation has also been addressed in a large number of studies; a 2011 Cochrane review included 31 acupuncture RCTs. The review reported that compared with sham acupuncture the risk ratio for short-term effects was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.34) and 1.05 (CI: 0.82, 1.35) for long-term effects74 but concluded there is no consistent, bias-free evidence that acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy, or electro-stimulation are effective for smoking cessation and no firm conclusions can be drawn. A 2012 review reported positive effects of acupoint stimulation at immediate, 3- and 6-month follow-up but did not differentiate effects of acupuncture, acupressure, electro-acupuncture, or percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.53 Nausea and vomiting was addressed in a number of publications for a variety of indications and results appear to depend on the underlying condition causing the symptom. A 2009 Cochrane review included 11 acupuncture RCTs evaluating the effect of wrist acupuncture point P6 stimulation (acupressure, acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, transcutaneous nerve stimulation, laser stimulation, capsicum plaster, acustimulation device) for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV).111 The review reported a pooled effect size of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.89) for acupuncture trials compared to sham for nausea and 0.60 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.84) for vomiting. The review concluded that P6 acupoint stimulation prevents post-operative nausea and vomiting; however the majority of included studies evaluated acupressure or other treatments and no conclusions specific to acupuncture were presented.

Positive effects were also reported for other clinical indications; however, the effects are based on only a small number of primary research studies. A Cochrane review on acupuncture for restless legs syndrome reported dermal needle therapy in combination with medications and massage was more effective than medications and massage alone in terms of remission of unpleasant sensation in the legs (RR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.75). However, the result was based on a single RCT and the review concluded that the evidence is insufficient.130 A systematic review on the efficacy of TCM for the management of constipation included 3 acupuncture RCTs.99 The RCTs comparing acupuncture treatment with patients taking lactulose or Folium Sennae reported statistically significant benefits in favor of acupuncture but no pooled effect was reported to estimate the size of the acupuncture treatment effect.

The clinical effectiveness is unclear for a number of wellness-relevant indications. Several primary studies and systematic reviews have been published on cancer treatment-associated physical adverse events; a 2013 review included 41 RCTs addressing a variety of adverse events such as pain, nausea, hot flashes, fatigue, xerostomia, prolonged postoperative ileus, anxiety / mood disorders, and sleep disturbance.38 The review concluded that acupuncture is an appropriate adjunctive treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea / vomiting but additional studies are needed, and for other symptoms efficacy remains undetermined due to the high risk of bias of existing studies. A Cochrane review specific to chemotherapy-induced nausea or vomiting reported that stimulation with needles reduced the proportion of acute vomiting (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.94) but not acute nausea severity. Results were inconsistent for elector-acupuncture and manual acupuncture, and studies combining electro-acupuncture with state-of-the-art antiemetics and in patients with refractory symptoms are needed to determine clinical relevance.161 The evidence base across and within 5 additional reviews on cancer and cancer-treatment related adverse events or specific conditions such as cancer-related fatigue, hot flashes in breast cancer survivors, and hiccups in cancer patients was judged to be insufficient to draw firm conclusions by the review authors. A Cochrane review on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) included 17 RCTs57. The review indicated that acupuncture was more effective than no specific therapy (RR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.79) and Chinese medicine treatment alone (RR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.33), but not sham acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD -0.11, 95% CI: -0.35, 0.013) or quality of life (SMD -0.03, 95% CI: -0.27, 0.22). Results of effects of acupuncture on rhinitis were judged to be inconsistent in 3 systematic reviews; the largest review included 12 acupuncture RCTs. A recent, large RCT, commissioned by German health insurance companies as part of the “Acupuncture in Routine Care” study and not yet included in existing reviews, included 981 randomized participants with allergic rhinitis. The study reported a mean improvement of 1.48 (SE 0.06) on a rhinitis quality of life questionnaire in the acupuncture group and 0.50 (SE 0.06) in the control group (p<0.001).208 The existing reviews did not report sufficient data to allow a reanalysis of all available RCTs. A 2006 systematic review on acupuncture treatment in gastrointestinal diseases included 10 RCTs covering a wide range of indications and reported that quality of life improved independently from the treatment, real or sham acupuncture, while a recent large RCT on functional dyspepsia and a trial on gastroesophageal reflux disease reported superior effects of true acupuncture, and a meta-analytic reanalysis for the purpose of this review of reviews was not possible.209,210 Two reviews on acupuncture effects on blood pressure and one review on tinnitus concluded that the evidence is inconclusive. Reviews on menopausal symptoms, premenstrual syndrome, and xerostomia showed conflicting results across reviews; each topic was targeted in 2 to 3 reviews by independent researcher groups. Reviews on dry eye, exercise performance, rrectile dysfunction and quality of life found conflicting results across included studies, did not pool results, and provided insufficient details for a reanalysis without obtaining original trials data. The reviews indicate that only a limited number of individual studies are available, ranging from 2 to 6 included acupuncture RCTs.

A review on acustimulation effects on nausea and vomiting in pregnant women (nausea-pregnancy) included 4 acupuncture RCTs and reported no effect in reducing nausea and vomiting.154

In addition, a small number of reviews were identified that could not be incorporated in the bubble plots. They primarily addressed the comparative effectiveness of acupuncture in comparison to other active treatments. One review concluded, based on individual RCTs and existing meta-analyses, that acupuncture was as effective as pharmacological therapies or acupressure in addressing postoperative nausea but not vomiting.54 A review of the effects of acupuncture on hot flushes in men with prostate cancer117 and reviews of auriculotherapy (either acupuncture or auricular taping) for managing constipation87, 211 concluded most studies were too methodologically flawed to reach a conclusion. A recent Chinese-language RCT (N=577 participants) not yet included in existing reviews on acupuncture for pulmonary function concluded that the effect of acupuncture is equal to salbutamol aerosol inhalation.211 A systematic review on acupuncture for respiratory disease in Japan 197 included 2 relevant RCTs, and the evidence tables indicated that acupuncture was superior to waiting list controls for cold prevention. However, no numerical values were reported and the statistical significance is not known.

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Acupuncture for chronic asthma - The Cochrane Library - McCarney - Wiley Online Library

Acupuncture for chronic asthma - The Cochrane Library - McCarney - Wiley Online Library | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

AbstractBackground

Acupuncture has traditionally been used to treat asthma in China and is used increasingly for this purpose internationally.

Objectives

The objective of this review was to assess the effects of acupuncture for the treatment of asthma or asthma-like symptoms.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (last searched August 2008), the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field trials register, AMED, and reference lists of articles. We also contacted trialists and researchers in the field of complementary and alternative medical research.

Selection criteria

Randomised and possibly randomised trials using needle acupuncture or other forms of stimulation of acupuncture. Any form of control treatment was considered (no treatment in addition to conventional asthma treatment, sham or placebo interventions, active comparator interventions). Studies were included provided outcome was assessed at one week or more.

Data collection and analysis

At least two reviewers independently assessed trial quality. A reviewer experienced in acupuncture assessed the adequacy of the active and sham acupuncture used in the studies. Study authors were contacted for missing information.

Main results

Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria recruiting 350 participants. Trial reporting was poor and trial quality was deemed inadequate to generalise findings. There was variation in the type of active and sham acupuncture, the outcomes measured and time-points presented. The points used in the sham arm of some studies are used for the treatment of asthma according to traditional Chinese medicine. Two studies used individualised treatment strategies and one study used a combination strategy of formula acupuncture with the addition of individualised points. No statistically significant or clinically relevant effects were found for acupuncture compared to sham acupuncture. Data from two small studies were pooled for lung function (post-treatment FEV1): Standardised Mean Difference 0.12, 95% confidence interval -0.31 to 0.55).

Authors' conclusions

There is not enough evidence to make recommendations about the value of acupuncture in asthma treatment. Further research needs to consider the complexities and different types of acupuncture.

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German Study Finds Acupuncture Can Help Treat Allergies

With allergy season around the corner, new research looks at whether acupuncture may help treat some of the miserable symptoms.
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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, February 27, 2014 2:40 PM

With #allergy season around the corner, new research looks at whether #acupuncture may help treat some of the miserable symptoms. #hayfever #research #rhinitis

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Western medical doctor, Dr. Weil, on the mechanisms of acupuncture: "Respiratory conditions, including sinusitis and asthma have been relieved with acupuncture"

Western medical doctor, Dr. Weil, on the mechanisms of acupuncture: "Respiratory conditions, including sinusitis and asthma have been relieved with acupuncture" | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
Learn more about acupuncture and acupuncture treatment for a variety of medical conditions, from Dr. Weil, your trusted health advisor.

 

Acupuncture

 

What is acupuncture?
Contrary to popular Western belief, acupuncture is not just a system for inserting very fine needles into specific body locations to alleviate pain. It is a complete medical protocol focused on correcting imbalances of energy in the body. From its inception in China more than 2,500 years ago, acupuncture has been used traditionally to prevent, diagnose and treat disease, as well as to improve general health.

 

The traditional explanation for acupuncture's effectiveness is that it modifies the flow of energy (known as qi or chi) throughout the body, but there is no scientific consensus that this is actually its mechanism of action. Research published in the May 30, 2010 online edition of Nature Neuroscience demonstrated that the effects of needling include influencing the activity of adenosine, an amino acid which becomes active in the skin after an injury to ease pain. This may explain in part why pain relief is often experienced with the therapy. In fact, much research in the West has focused on this pain-relieving effect, rather than acupuncture's traditional role of balancing energy to address a wide range of disorders, and the more subtle mechanisms that may be responsible for its overall benefits to health.

 

Acupuncture was popularized in the States during the early 70's after President Nixon opened relations with China. At the time, a New York Times reporter, James Reston, had an appendectomy in a Chinese hospital using acupuncture as a means to decrease his post-surgical pain.

 

What is acupuncture used for?


Because the goal of acupuncture is to promote and restore the balance of energy, which flows throughout the body, it can be used for a wide variety of conditions, from emotional disorders (anxiety, depression) to digestive complaints (nausea, vomiting, irritable bowel syndrome). It can be beneficial for pain syndromes due to an injury or associated with chronic degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. It can also be helpful in treating neurological problems like migraines or Parkinson's disease, or as a rehabilitation strategy for individuals who suffered a stroke. Respiratory conditions, including sinusitis and asthma have been relieved with acupuncture, as have many gynecologic disorders and infertility. Acupuncture has also proved beneficial for reducing fatigue and addictions, and for promoting overall well-being.

 

Studies in the U.S. indicate that acupuncture can help relieve chronic low back pain, dental pain, migraine headaches, fibromyalgia and symptoms of osteoarthritis. It has been shown to assist in the treatment of emotional pain syndromes such as post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. It has also demonstrated clinical success in achieving pregnancy when used in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization.

 

What should one expect on a visit to a practitioner of acupuncture?


Typically, the first visit involves a comprehensive health history assessment. Questions that are included may seem strange, but in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) - which encompasses acupuncture, herbal medicine, massage and other modalities - energy flow and whole-body interaction are the keys to diagnosing all physical disease. For example, the practitioner may ask to examine your tongue, feel your pulse to help determine energy flow, or ask many questions related to bowel habits and diet, even if these seem to have nothing to do with the primary complaint.

 

After the initial consultation and assessment, the needles are placed in very specific locations. Upon insertion, one may feel a momentary sharp or stinging sensation; however, many report they don't even feel the majority of the insertions. It is common to experience a deep ache for a short time in some of the points. The needles may then be gently manipulated and some practitioners may use heat or even electricity with the needles.

 

The depth to which the needles are inserted varies according to the treatment and the practitioner; however, needles should never be positioned deep enough to puncture organs (other than the skin). The needles are usually left in place for five to 20 minutes, usually no longer than 60 minutes, and then removed.  Following a treatment, practitioners will usually reassesses the client and often give suggestions for home care. It is also typical to suggest supplemental Chinese herbs to enhance the achievement of energetic balance. Acute symptoms may require only two to four treatments; whereas for chronic cases, it is common to have as many as 12 or more treatments, usually over a course of eight to 10 weeks. Regular monthly visits may be suggested as preventive measures to decrease stress, improve energy or boost immunity.

 

Are there any side effects or indications where acupuncture should be avoided?


Those with bleeding disorders or who are taking blood thinners should check with their doctors before having acupuncture. The most common side effects are bleeding and bruising at the site, along with minor pain and soreness. It is recommended that a disinfectant such as alcohol be swabbed over the area prior to needle insertion to decrease the very small possibility of infection. Obviously, needles should be clean and never shared between clients. Rarely, a needle may break. The worst case scenario is a punctured organ.

 

However, serious complications are extremely rare when acupuncture is performed by a qualified, certified practitioner. A review of the international research literature revealed pneumothorax (a punctured lung) to be the only life-threatening complication to have occurred among tens of thousands of patients over nine separate trials. No post-acupuncture infections were reported in any of the studies.

 

What is Dr. Weil's view regarding acupuncture?


Although there are certification courses offered to medical doctors to learn acupuncture, preferably, the practitioner will be trained in a TCM program to be maximally qualified. An understanding and background in TCM is important in achieving optimal results with acupuncture. Look for practitioners who have thorough knowledge and training in this modality of treatment and who specialize in TCM or acupuncture as their primary form of treatment.

 

Acupuncture is increasingly recognized by Western medicine as an effective alternative or adjunct to conventional treatments for stroke rehabilitation, headache, menstrual cramps, joint conditions, low back pain, and asthma as well as for the side effects of chemotherapy and nausea related to pregnancy. Dr. Weil often recommends acupuncture for other pain-related conditions, especially osteoarthritis. Acupuncture to alleviate acute sinusitis can be quite effective, as can acupuncture on the ear for quelling addictions. Acupuncture used with TCM can work well for addressing autoimmune conditions and infertility. Because acupuncture has so many positive effects on the body with minimal incidence of side effects, it is often considered in creating an integrative medicine treatment plan.


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American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: the science of acupuncture. Study resources, references and summaries

American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: the science of acupuncture.  Study resources, references and summaries | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

BASIC SCIENCE ACUPUNCTURE ARTICLES

Clifford, D. H., Lee, M. O., and Lee, D. C.; Cardiovascular effects of atropine on acupuncture, needling with electrostimulation, at Tsu San Li (St-36) in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1977. Vol.38[6], p.845-849. Acupuncture, needling with electrostimulation, at Tsu San Li (St-36) produced (1) significant decrease in cardiac output, (2) decrease in stroke volume, (3) increase in total peripheral resistance, and (4) minimal changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, and central venous pressure in dogs under halothane anesthesia. Atropine given alone and given before acupuncture at Tsu San Li (St-36) produced (1) early significant increase in cardiac output, (2) early significant increase in heart rate, (3) increase in mean arterial pressure, (4) decrease in total peripheral resistance, and (5) minimal changes in stroke volume, pulse pressure, and central venous pressure in anesthetized dogs. It was concluded that the effects of acupuncture at Tsu San Li (St-36) were parasympathomimetic-like and that these effects could be blocked by atropine, a parasympatholytic drug.

Clifford, D. H., Lee, D. C., and Lee, M. O.; Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide and acupuncture on the cardiovascular system of dogs. Ann N Y.Acad Sci 1983. Vol.411, p.84-93. The intravenous administration of dimethyl sulfoxide (100 mg/kg) resulted in a significant increase in cardiac output, stroke volume, central venous pressure, and a significant decrease in heart rate. Acupuncture by electrocautery at Jen Chung (Go-26) produced a significant increase in cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure and a significant decrease in total peripheral resistance in dogs under 0.75% halothane anesthesia. Both DMSO and acupuncture elicit an analgesic effect and enhance cardiovascular function as exemplified by an increase in the cardiac output. 

Skarda, R. T. and Muir, W. W., III; Comparison of electroacupuncture and butorphanol on respiratory and cardiovascular effects and rectal pain threshold after controlled rectal distention in mares. Am J Vet Res 2003. Vol.64[2], p.137-144.
Yi, C.; A study on the release of tritiated 5HT from brain during acupuncture and morphine analgesia. Sci Sin 1977. Vol.20, p.113-124.

Zhang, R. X., Lao, L., Wang, X., Ren, K., and Berman, B. B.; Electroacupuncture combined with indomethacin enhances antihyperalgesia in inflammatory rats. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav 2004. Vol.78[4], p.793-797. 


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Antibiotics are proven ineffective for coughs: Try Chinese medicine and herbs instead

Antibiotics are proven ineffective for coughs: Try Chinese medicine and herbs instead | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
Antibiotics are proven ineffective for coughs: Try Chinese medicine and herbs instead

 

 

- General acupuncture therapy: Acupuncture therapy in general is an ideal way to treat coughs from a number of causes. "Needling a point on the Conception Vessel meridian (an extra meridian) just above the sternum can quickly calm a cough and assist breathing. Moxa therapy is used typically in the cold, damp type of cough, since there is a need for warmth in that pattern," Schoenbart and Shefi wrote.


Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/038582_antibiotics_Chinese_medicine_coughs.html#ixzz2cmcvUJ1J

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Acupuncture may help some people with COPD: study | Reuters

Acupuncture may help some people with COPD: study | Reuters | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Three months of acupuncture improved breathing problems in people with chronic lung disease, in a new study from Japan.According to one researcher, the benefits seen with
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Give hay fever the heave-ho! - with acupuncture

Give hay fever the heave-ho! - with acupuncture | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
Say goodbye to annoying sniffles and sore throats this summer - acupuncture provides relief.
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Is Acupuncture Right For You?

Is Acupuncture Right For You? | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
The modern benefits of this ancient practice
Shaftesbury Acupuncture Clinic's insight:

Acupuncture improves allergic runny nose.

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Acupuncture as an allergy relief option for children

Acupuncture as an allergy relief option for children | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
For some of the littlest allergy sufferers it can be a challenge to find relief.

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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, May 10, 2013 6:30 PM

We use acupressure when treating children, this involves no needles.  We have experience treating children for a variety of different ailments.

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Alternative smoking cessation aids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Alternative smoking cessation aids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22502956?dopt=Abstract

Our results suggest that acupuncture and hypnotherapy may help smokers quit. Aversive smoking also may help smokers quit; however, there are no recent trials investigating this intervention. More evidence is needed to determine whether alternative interventions are as efficacious as pharmacotherapies.


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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, May 16, 2013 4:30 PM

A meta-analysis was carried out into studies which had looked at alternative  approaches to helping smoking cessation.

Out of the possible treatment modalities, acupuncture was found to be one oof the more likely approaches to help smokers to quit.

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Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials: 3. Diseases and disorders that can be treated with acupuncture

Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials: 3. Diseases and disorders that can be treated with acupuncture | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

3. Diseases and disorders that can be treated with acupuncture

The diseases or disorders for which acupuncture therapy has been tested in controlled clinical trials reported in the recent literature can be classified into four categories as shown below.

1. Diseases, symptoms or conditions for which acupuncture has been proved-through controlled trials-to be an effective treatment:

Adverse reactions to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy; Allergic rhinitis (including hay fever); Biliary colic; Depression (including depressive neurosis and depression following stroke); Dysentery, acute bacillary
Dysmenorrhoea, primary; Epigastralgia, acute (in peptic ulcer, acute and chronic gastritis, and gastrospasm); Facial pain (including craniomandibular disorders); Headache; Hypertension, essential; Hypotension, primary;
Induction of labour; Knee pain; Leukopenia; Low back pain; Malposition of fetus, correction of; Morning sickness; Nausea and vomiting; Neck pain;
Pain in dentistry (including dental pain and temporomandibular dysfunction);
Periarthritis of shoulder; Postoperative pain; Renal colic; Rheumatoid arthritis; Sciatica; Sprain; Stroke; Tennis elbow 

2. Diseases, symptoms or conditions for which the therapeutic effect of acupuncture has been shown but for which further proof is needed: [...]


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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, April 10, 2013 3:10 PM

The WHO categorises diseases to the degree it feels that that acupuncture is applicable to them.  See the whole article for an overview.

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Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation - The Cochrane Library - White - Wiley Online Library

Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation - The Cochrane Library - White - Wiley Online Library | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

AbstractBackground

Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms.

Objectives

The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (which includes trials of smoking cessation interventions identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and AMED in October 2013. We also searched four Chinese databases in September 2013: Sino-Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP.

Selection criteria

Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation.

Data collection and analysis

We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up.

We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks) and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis pooling risk ratios using a fixed-effect model.

Main results

We included 38 studies. Based on three studies, acupuncture was not shown to be more effective than a waiting list control for long-term abstinence, with wide confidence intervals and evidence of heterogeneity (n = 393, risk ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98 to 3.28, I⊃2; = 57%). Compared with sham acupuncture, the RR for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1.22 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.38), and for the long-term effect was 1.10 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.40). The studies were not judged to be free from bias, and there was evidence of funnel plot asymmetry with larger studies showing smaller effects. The heterogeneity between studies was not explained by the technique used. Acupuncture was less effective than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There was no evidence that acupuncture is superior to psychological interventions in the short- or long-term. There is limited evidence that acupressure is superior to sham acupressure for short-term outcomes (3 trials, n = 325, RR 2.54, 95% CI 1.27 to 5.08), but no trials reported long-term effects, The pooled estimate for studies testing an intervention that included continuous auricular stimulation suggested a short-term benefit compared to sham stimulation (14 trials, n = 1155, RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.16); subgroup analysis showed an effect for continuous acupressure (7 studies, n = 496, RR 2.73, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.18) but not acupuncture with indwelling needles (6 studies, n = 659, RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.69). At longer follow-up the CIs did not exclude no effect (5 trials, n = 570, RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.74). The evidence from two trials using laser stimulation was inconsistent and could not be combined. The combined evidence on electrostimulation suggests it is not superior to sham electrostimulation (short-term abstinence: 6 trials, n = 634, RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.46; long-term abstinence: 2 trials, n = 405, RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.23).

Authors' conclusions

Although pooled estimates suggest possible short-term effects there is no consistent, bias-free evidence that acupuncture, acupressure, or laser therapy have a sustained benefit on smoking cessation for six months or more. However, lack of evidence and methodological problems mean that no firm conclusions can be drawn. Electrostimulation is not effective for smoking cessation. Well-designed research into acupuncture, acupressure and laser stimulation is justified since these are popular interventions and safe when correctly applied, though these interventions alone are likely to be less effective than evidence-based interventions.

 Jump to…Plain language summaryDo acupuncture and related therapies help smokers who are trying to quit

We reviewed the evidence that acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrical stimulation help people who are trying to stop smoking.

Background

Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese therapy, generally using fine needles inserted through the skin at specific points in the body. Needles may be stimulated by hand or using an electric current (electroacupuncture). Related therapies, in which points are stimulated without the use of needles, include acupressure, laser therapy and electrical stimulation. Needles and acupressure may be used just during treatment sessions, or continuous stimulation may be provided by using indwelling needles or beads or seeds taped to to acupressure points. The aim of these therapies is to reduce the withdrawal symptoms that people experience when they try to quit smoking. The review looked at trials comparing active treatments with sham treatments or other control conditions including advice alone, or an effective treatment such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or counselling. Sham treatment involves inserting needles or applying pressure to other points of the body not believed to have an active effect, or using dummy needles that do not go through the skin, or inactive laser or electrical stimulation devices. Using this type of control means that the patients should not know whether they are receiving active treatment or not.

To assess whether there was a sustained benefit in helping people to stop smoking we looked at the proportion of people who were abstinent at least six months after quit date. We also looked at short term outcomes, up to six weeks after quit date. Evidence of benefit after six months is regarded as necessary to show that a treatment could help people stop smoking permanently.

Study characteristics

We included 38 randomised studies published up to October 2013. Trials tested a variety of different interventions and controls. The specific points used, the number of sessions and whether there was continuous stimulation varied. Three studies (393 people) compared acupuncture to a waiting list control. Nineteen studies (1,588 people) compared active acupuncture to sham acupuncture, but only 11 of these studies included long-term follow-up of six months or more. Three studies (253 people) compared acupressure to sham acupressure but none had long-term follow-up. Two trials used laser stimulation and six (634 people) used electrostimulation. The overall quality of the evidence was moderate.

Key findings

Three studies comparing acupuncture to a waiting list control and reporting long-term abstinence did not show clear evidence of benefit. For acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture, there was weak evidence of a small short-term benefit but not of any long-term benefit. Acupuncture was less effective than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and not shown to be better than counselling. There was limited evidence that acupressure is superior to sham acupressure in the short term but no evidence about long-term effects. In an analysis of the subgroup of trials where the treatment included continuous stimulation, those trials which used continuous acupressure to points on the ear had the largest short-term effect. The evidence from two trials using laser stimulation was inconsistent. The seven trials of electrostimulation do not suggest evidence of benefit compared to sham electrostimulation.

The review did not find consistent evidence that active acupuncture or related techniques increased the number of people who could successfully quit smoking. However, some techniques may be better than doing nothing, at least in the short term, and there is not enough evidence to dismiss the possibility that they might have an effect greater than placebo. They are likely to be less effective than current evidence-based interventions. They are safe when correctly applied.

 


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Acupuncture appears linked with improvement in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Acupuncture appears linked with improvement in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
According to a small clinical trial reported by investigators from Japan, acupuncture appears to be associated with improvement of dyspnea (labored breathing) on exertion, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, May 10, 2013 6:54 PM

Study published in Archives of Internal Medicine found that afer 12 weeks' acupuncture treatment, improvements were seen in shortness of breath on exertion, nutrition status (including BMI), airflow obstruction, exercise capacity and health-related quality of life for partients with COPD.

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Doctor's review: "For what conditions has acupuncture treatment been found helpful?" - MedicineNet

Doctor's review: "For what conditions has acupuncture treatment been found helpful?" - MedicineNet | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

For what conditions has acupuncture treatment been found helpful?

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Program was established in 1977 and is designed to assess health technology. The program organizes major conferences that produce consensus statements and technology assessment statements on controversial issues in medicine important to health care providers, patients, and the general public. The following statement is from the NIH Consensus Development Statement on Acupuncture on November 3-5, 1997.

 

Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention is widely practiced in the United States. There have been many studies of its potential usefulness. However, many of these studies provide equivocal results because of design, sample size, and other factors. The issue is further complicated by inherent difficulties in the use of appropriate controls, such as placebo and sham acupuncture groups.

 

However, promising results have emerged, for example, efficacy of acupuncture in adult post-operative and chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and in post-operative dental pain. There are other situations such as addiction, stroke rehabilitation, headache, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, low back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma where acupuncture may be useful as an adjunct treatment or an acceptable alternative or be included in a comprehensive management program.

 

Findings from basic research have begun to elucidate the mechanisms of action of acupuncture, including the release of opioids and other peptides in the central nervous system and the periphery and changes in neuroendocrine function. Although much needs to be accomplished, the emergence of plausible mechanisms for the therapeutic effects of acupuncture is encouraging.

 

The introduction of acupuncture into the choice of treatment modalities that are readily available to the public is in its early stages. Issues of training, licensure, and reimbursement remain to be clarified. There is sufficient evidence, however, of acupuncture's value to expand its use into conventional medicine and to encourage further studies of its physiology and clinical value.This statement is representative of the opinions of current standard medical practice.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 2/10/2014


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The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture and Their Relevance to Allergic Rhinitis: A Narrative Review and Proposed Model

The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture and Their Relevance to Allergic Rhinitis: A Narrative Review and Proposed Model | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

 

Classical literature indicates that acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat numerous inflammatory conditions, including allergic rhinitis. Recent research has examined some of the mechanisms underpinning acupuncture's anti-inflammatory effects which include mediation by sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways.

[...] In summary, acupuncture may exert anti-inflammatory effects through a complex neuro-endocrino-immunological network of actions.

 

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine


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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, May 14, 2013 1:49 PM

An intersting look at the effects that acupuncture has on the immune system, which go some way towards explaining its effectiveness for not just allergic rhinitis, but also other inflammatory conditions.

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Acupuncture research ARRC - Articles - Briefing Papers

Acupuncture research ARRC - Articles - Briefing Papers | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

Briefing papers

 

The Acupuncture Research Resource Centre has produced a set of Briefing Papers which review the evidence of effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of specific conditions. These papers are available in PDF format for download below:

 

No 1 - June 1998: Migraine
No 2 - June 1998: Stroke
No 3 - October 1998: Arthritis
No 4 - September 1999: Gynaecology
No 5 - September 1999: Menopause
No 6 - February 2000: HIV Infection and TCM
No 7 - May 2000: Substance Abuse
No 8 - February 2002: Bronchial Asthma
No 9 - February 2002: Depression, Anxiety
No 10 - August 2004: Obstetrics (1)
No 11 - April 2005: Sports Injuries
No 12 - September 2006: Obstetrics (2) 
Short Briefing Paper 1 - November 2006: Infertility 


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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, November 18, 2013 6:18 PM

NB: Follow the link above to access the individual PDFs

Bedford Acupuncture's curator insight, November 19, 2013 9:41 AM

Original link here to access PDFs:  http://www.acupunctureresearch.org.uk/bp.html

Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, November 19, 2013 12:21 PM

Follow the link above to access these PDFs

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Secrets of the experts who never catch a cold - including acupuncture

Secrets of the experts who never catch  a cold - including acupuncture | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
Rhiannon Griffiths, member of the British Acupuncture Council gives some advice...
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Want to quit smoking ? Try acupuncture or hypnosis | Reuters

Want to quit smoking ? Try acupuncture or hypnosis | Reuters | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
(Reuters) - Acupuncture and hypnosis have been promoted as drug-free ways to help smokers kick the habit, and there is some evidence that they work, according to a research review that looked at 14 international...
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An Acupuncturist Can Help Keep Your Cold at Bay

An Acupuncturist Can Help Keep Your Cold at Bay | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

Acupuncture is oftentimes thought of as a pain-relieving treatment, but did you know it could also help to naturally boost your immune system?

Acupuncture, a branch of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been used for thousands of years to help enhance the immune system


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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, May 16, 2013 2:37 PM

Research has chown that acupuncture boosts certain types of immune cells, which can help the body to fight off pathogens, and also mediate allergic responses.

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Acupuncture for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - COPD

Acupuncture for  chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - COPD | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it

http://www.naturalstandard.com/news/news201205015.asp

 

Acupuncture may reduce symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to a new study.

 

COPD is a type of lung disease that involves damage or obstruction to the airways of the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. COPD is an overall term referring to a group of chronic lung conditions, most commonly including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and possibly asthma or asthmatic bronchitis. 

The researchers found that after 12 weeks, shortness of breath significantly improved for patients in the acupuncture group when compared to the placebo group. Furthermore, patients in the acupuncture group were able to walk significantly further during the walk test at the end of the 12 weeks.

The authors concluded that acupuncture may be beneficial for COPD patients by reducing shortness of breath. Additional research in this area is warranted.


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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, May 16, 2013 3:55 PM

This is very encoraging research.  Many patients may not necessarily think of acupuncture as being a possible treatment for COPD, but acupuncture really does have applications in many different diseases and conditions.

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Is Acupuncture an Antidote for Allergies? | TIME.com

Is Acupuncture an Antidote for Allergies? | TIME.com | Acupuncture and the respiratory system | Scoop.it
Acupuncture already helps to relieve pain in some patients, and the latest study hints that it might relieve sneezing and itchy eyes as well.

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Shaftesbury Clinic's curator insight, July 5, 2013 3:44 PM

Is #acupuncture the antidote to #allergies? Patients improved allergy symptoms & lessened their use of antihistamines in this study.