L’hétérogénéité des classes n’est pas seulement un moyen de mieux faire réussir les élèves les plus en difficulté sans pénaliser les « meilleurs ». C’est aussi la garantie d’une formation commune de tous les élèves aux valeurs de la République. La réforme du collège va dans ce sens, même si elle « n’a rien d’une révolution ». Voilà le point de vue que défend Marie Duru-Bellat, également signataire de la tribune « Le collège actuel n’est ni unique, ni juste et encore moins efficace ».
Classes inversées (flipped classrooms). L’appellation (d’abord en anglais, plus tard en français) apparaît vers 2007 quand deux enseignants de chimie, Jonathan Bergmann et Aaron Sams (dans l’équivalent de notre secondaire aux États-Unis), découvrent le
"Comment rendre la rencontre entre l'élève et l'enseignant possible, sans rien abandonner sur le niveau ou sur les objectifs ? Comment changer ce qui ne fonctionne plus ?" Alain Taurisson n'est certainement pas le seul professeur à se poser cette question. Il propose, dans un petit livre accompagné de fiches pratiques et d'exemples, écrit avec une enseignante de lettres, Claire Herviou, d'inverser l'école, c'est à dire de mettre vraiment les activités des élèves au centre de la classe à la place du monologue du maitre en direct ou en différé à la maison.
L’enseignant est un être fascinant qui, avec le temps, développera une ou plusieurs névroses amusantes qui feront la terreur de ses élèves et le bonheurs des psychanalystes : on notera entre autres une addiction grandissante aux substances excitantes telles que le café, un inexplicable manque de patience pour les enfants des autres lors des fêtes de famille ou encore une allergie au papier.Mais surtout, il y a une obsession du temps.Ça commence au début de l’année, lors de notre palmarès de Cann...
Finland, one of the leading educational hotspots in the world, is embarking on one of the most radical overhauls in modern education. By 2020, the country plans to phase out teaching individual subjects such as maths, chemistry and physics, and...
The thinking that we can help anyone to learn dates back a long time. The words of John Locke come to mind: “That the difference to be found in the manners and abilities of men is owing more to their education than to anything else, we have reason to conclude, that great care is to be had of the forming children’s minds, and giving them that seasoning early, which shall influence their lives always after.” For some students, studying maths seems relatively easy, and they seem to understand the content quickly. For others, it takes more effort and time. Other students may find it very easy to learn languages or science. To put it another way, the time it takes for a student to become proficient in a subject will vary. This time to learn is a proxy for aptitude. In a traditional class, what is fixed is what the students need to learn as well as time. In this fixed time, different students learn in different extents, and that is what gets measured by traditional examinations. If we look at a population of students, this learning function is likely to be normally distributed. In a traditional class, if all students receive the same instruction, their performance will be correlated with this aptitude, and the performance will be normally distributed. This is a very substantial, thought-provoking and indeed striking observation that gets at the heart of learning and education. However, what society and the workplace are interested in is the competence of students, not just how well they learnt in a fixed amount of time. Ensuring that students are competent and proficient is a more important approach to education and learning than grading them on a curve. When proficiency becomes the focus, teaching and education move from measuring students’ performance on examinations to maximising the learning for the individual student. An individually directed learning approach can produce students who reach a desired competence level, either by personalising the instruction or changing the time required to learn. The learning and practice of medicine provides an example. Obviously, what we as patients want are competent doctors. In the setting of learning medicine — and I would dare say of most occupations — the goal is competence, not ranking. In a medical school like ours, the emphasis is not just on rating students, but on producing proficient practitioners of medicine. It matters little that they did better than their peers if they do not achieve the skill and competence to practise. The focus moves from grading performance relative to peers to learning to attain competence.
Benjamin Bloom, a well-known professor of education, argued that when students are individually coached and tutored, they perform much better than those who attend a typical classroom and receive regular classroom instruction. This implies that under the right settings, most students have the latent potential to perform at a very high level, including those who in a normal classroom setting would wind up in the lower part of the grade curve. This may be why students in Asia and Singapore go for individual tutoring. Medical students learn best when they are part of the clinical environment and are therefore individually mentored and tutored. To do that, we embed students in clinical care teams, that is, doctors and nurses who take care of patients. In this setting, the medical students are engaged in watching and learning both the science and art of medicine. In addition to medical knowledge, they learn the culture of medicine and how to apply their knowledge to diagnose and manage patients. Having good bedside manners, knowing how to elicit a patient’s history, understand their complaints, properly perform an examination or interpret tests — these are all essential to diagnosing, treating and managing the patient. It is also essential for young doctors to learn communication skills, not just with patients and their families but with the whole medical team working on behalf of the patient. The learning happens not in isolation, not from books and not just from the main physician or consultant on the team, but from other members, senior students, house officers, resident physicians, registrars, nurses and indeed the entire milieu. This kind of learning is more than individual tutoring; it includes a living experience by being part of a team that is managing patients. This kind of solution does not necessarily work with all kinds of learning. But different instructional solutions focusing on competence have been developed and used in many spheres. Prof Bloom proposed a partial solution: Mastery learning. It means building an approach using questions, testing and feedback until students master the content of a particular subject. In other words, the focus is on helping students gain competence rather than on seeing how they are functioning relative to other students. Prof Bloom and his group conducted a study comparing three groups: Regular classroom instruction, mastery learning, and tutoring. As expected, the students with individual tutoring performed best, but the mastery learning class also did much better than the group with only regular classroom instruction. Seventy per cent of the students in the mastery class performed at the same level as the top 20 per cent of the regular class. This is indeed a very remarkable performance. In this case, testing, assessments with feedback and examinations were used as tools for learning, not as tools for grading. The big difference is that the objective was for the entire class, not just a subset, to learn for mastery. In other words, it is focused not on individual grading where some students get an A and others a C, but on having everyone reach competence. In labour-scarce Singapore, focusing on raising the great majority’s competence level will count more than counting their exam results.
« Le développement des méthodes actives, des travaux d'équipe, ont rendu familiers des procédés de stimulation et d'émulation qui ne risquent pas d'engendrer un ''esprit d'âpreté'' déplaisant, et surtout n'ont point sur les élèves qui ne figurent pas dans le'' peloton de tête'' les effets décourageants que maintes études psychopédagogiques ont mis en lumière [..].
Extrait d'un texte de 2014??? Non, Edgar Faure, ministre de l'éducation, 6 janvier 1969...
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