ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change
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PSYCH 570 Week 6 Learning Team Organizational Culture in the Workplace Paper and Presentation

PSYCH 570 Week 6 Learning Team Organizational Culture in the Workplace Paper and Presentation | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
PSYCH 570 Week 6 Learning Team Organizational Culture in the Workplace Paper and Presentation, UOP PSYCH 570 Week 6 Learning Team Organizational Culture in the Workplace Paper and Presentation, PSYCH 570 Organizational Psychology, UOP PSYCH 570 Organizati
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PSYCH 570 Week 6 Learning Team Organizational Culture in the Workplace Paper and Presentation

Write a 1,750- to 2,100-word paper in which you analyze the effects of organizational culture on organizational development and change. As a part of your analysis, address the following items:

Select one of the following organizations as the basis of this assignment:Apple®General Electric CompanyIBM®NordstromSouthwest AirlinesAmerican Red CrossThe U.S. Army or another military branchThe Walt Disney CompanyObtain instructor approval for your selected organization prior to beginning this assignment.Describe your selected organization, including the organization’s philosophy, mission, vision, values, and structure.Analyze the relationship between the design of your selected organization and its organizational culture.Analyze the effects of organizational culture on the organization’s workforce.Evaluate the effects of change on the organization.

Include at least five peer-reviewed references.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Prepare a 10- to 15-minute oral presentation accompanied by 8- to 10-Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides illustrating your Organizational Culture and Workplace Paper. Online Campus students must submit speaker notes with their presentation.

Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

 

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HUM 115 Week 4 Solving Personal Problems Applying the Five-Step Model

HUM 115 Week 4 Solving Personal Problems Applying the Five-Step Model | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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HUM 115 Week 4 Solving Personal Problems Applying the Five-Step Model 
Explain the Five-Step Model giving a brief description of each step. This should be no more than 50 words of the 300-word minimum. 
Select a personal problem from your own life. 
Apply the Five-Step Model to solve it.
Write a 300-word paper summarizing how you intend to solve the problem. Characterize yourself as either a Problem Creator, Problem Experiencer, Problem Solver or a Problem Eliminator, and explain why you chose that category. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Submit your answers in the Assignment Files tab above.


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HUM 115 Week 2 Barriers to Critical Thinking

HUM 115 Week 2 Barriers to Critical Thinking | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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HUM 115 Week 2 Barriers to Critical Thinking 
 Step #1: Identify two barriers that influence your critical thinking. Step #2: In at least 1 paragraph per barrier (at least 100 words) describe the barrier, the steps you can take to overcome the barrier, and how you plan on using the skills learned this week to continue to overcome your barriers. 
Step #3: In a third paragraph, 100 words or more, answer:
Why is it so important to overcome these barriers? 
What happens when you refuse to recognize these barriers? 
**So, at the end you should have at least 3 paragraphs! 
Step #4: Use correct spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and sentence structure. Use an APA title page, and APA format for your assignment. Revise and Edit as needed, using the CWE Writepoint and any peer reviewers you can! Submit your answers in the Assignment Files tab above.


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HUM 115 Entire Course

HUM 115 Entire Course | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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HUM 115 Entire Course 
HUM 115 Week 1 Individual Assignment Stages of Critical Thinking 
HUM 115 Week 1 Individual GameScape Assessments 
HUM 115 Week 2 Individual Assignment Barriers to Critical Thinking 
HUM 115 Week 2 Individual GameScape Assessments 
HUM 115 Week 3 Individual Assignment Points of View 
HUM 115 Week 3 Individual GameScape Assessments 
HUM 115 Week 4 Individual Assignment Problem Solving 
HUM 115 Week 4 Individual GameScape Assessments 
HUM 115 Week 5 Individual Assignment Critical Thinking Reflection 
HUM 115 Week 5 Individual GameScape Assessments


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ACCT 224 Week 6 You Decide Assignment Business Tax Concepts

ACCT 224 Week 6 You Decide Assignment Business Tax Concepts | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ACCT 224 Week 6 You Decide Assignment Business Tax Concepts 

 1. What constitutes a business expense? 

 2.What are the differences between cash and accrual basis accounting? Provide an example of each type. Briefly explain why a company might need to adjust entries in the general ledger. Be sure to address the classes and types of adjusting entries. 

3.Evaluate how the appearance of solvency for a business changes when using cash vs. accrual accounting, noting which stakeholders might be affected and how.


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ACCT 224 Week 4 Homework Assignment

ACCT 224 Week 4 Homework Assignment | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ACCT 224 Week 4 Homework Assignment 

 1. Nancy gave her grandson, Sean, twenty acres of land. Her tax basis in the land was $25,000. Nancy’s marginal tax rate for the current year is 45%; her grandson’s is 25%.Its fair market value was $575,000 at the date of the transfer. If the gift tax rate is 40% and she has never made a gift in excess of $10,000 before this, what amount of gift tax will she pay? What is their net tax savings percentage as a family unit if Sean sells the land? 

Question two:

 1. Tom and Judy Bell, who file jointly, collected $6,000 of Social Security benefits, $18,000 in fully taxable pension payments and $10,000 of tax-exempt interest. How much of their Social Security is included in gross income? How would this change if they had received $20,000 in tax-exempt interest?


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ACCT 224 Week 2 You Decide Assignment

ACCT 224 Week 2 You Decide Assignment | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ACCT 224 Week 2 You Decide Assignment 
Prepare a 2-3 page paper (approximately 350 words per page) explaining the following to the Erbs: 
• Why can’t you give them a refund? 
• How was their refund/taxes due calculated? 
• Why are they or why are they not subject to the AMT? 
Grading Rubric 
Category Description 
Comprehension Demonstrate a strong grasp of the problem at hand. Demonstrate an understanding of how the course concepts apply to the problem. 
Analysis Apply original thought to solving the business problem. Correctly apply concepts from the course material toward solving the business problem. 
Execution Write your answer clearly and succinctly using strong organization and proper grammar. Use citations correctly. 
Total A quality paper will meet or exceed all of the above requirements. 


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ACCT 224 All Assignment

ACCT 224 All Assignment | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ACCT 224 All Assignment 
ACCT 224 Week 1 You Decide Assignment 
ACCT 224 Week 2 You Decide Assignment 
ACCT 224 Week 3 Assignment 
ACCT 224 Week 3 Homework Assignment
ACCT 224 Week 4 Homework Assignment 
ACCT 224 Week 5 Assignment 
ACCT 224 Week 5 Homework Assignment 
ACCT 224 Week 6 You Decide Assignment Business Tax Concepts
ACCT 224 Week 7 Assignment


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ECO 450 Week 8 Quiz 6 Ch 11 and 12

ECO 450 Week 8 Quiz 6 Ch 11 and 12 | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ECO 450 Week 8 Quiz 6 Ch 11 and 12 1. A lump-sum tax results in both income and substitution effects. 2. A consumer currently pays $500 a year retail sales taxes. She would be better off if she paid the same amount annually as a lump-sum tax. 3. Clothing is sold in perfectly competitive markets where no externalities prevail. An excise tax on clothing will result in a market price for clothing that equals the marginal social benefit and mar­ginal social cost of service. 4. Assuming that the income effects are negligible and that beer is sold in a competitive market, a 10‑cent per can tax on beer that causes a 10,000 can per month decline in sales will result in an excess burden of $1,000 per month. 5. A tax on land results in an income effect on landlords but no substitution effect. Then it follows that the excess burden of a tax on land will be zero. 6. The excess burden of a tax on interest income is $5 billion per year. Total interest income per year is $50 billion. The tax currently collects $15 billion in revenue per year. The efficiency-loss ratio of the tax is therefore 0.33. 7. A payroll tax results in a difference between the gross wages paid by employers and the net wages received by workers. 8. If the market supply of labor services is perfectly inelastic, a tax on labor income will reduce the net wages received by workers by the full amount of the tax per labor hour. 9. If a $10 per unit tax is levied on the output of a monopolist, more of that tax will be shifted to con­sumers than would be the case if the same good were produced by a competitive industry. 10. A study indicates that taxes in the United States reduce the Gini coefficient for the nation by 10 percent. This implies that taxes make the income distribution more equal. 11. A lump-sum tax only results in income effects. 12. An income tax is an example of a price-distorting tax. 13. The more price-elastic the demand of a taxed item, the lower the excess burden of a tax on the sale of that item. 14. If the tax on the sale of gasoline is doubled from 20 cents per gallon to 40 cents per gallon, the excess burden of the tax will quadruple. 15. If the compensated elasticity of supply of labor is zero, then a tax on labor earnings will have zero excess burden. 16. Lump-sum taxes do not prevent prices from equaling the marginal social cost and benefit of any goods and services. 17. Lump-sum taxes can vary in amount based on income level. 18. A lump-sum tax can distort prices and affect consumption behavior. Multiple Choice Questions 1. A lump-sum tax: a. distorts market prices so that they do not simultaneously equal MSB and MSC. b. can result in price changes but does not prevent prices from simultaneously being equal to MSB and MSC. c. results in substitution effects that change prices. d. results in both substitution effects and income effects that change prices. 2. The current price of compact discs, which are traded in perfectly competitive markets, is $10. A $1 per unit tax is levied on the discs. Annual record sales decline from five million to four million as a result of the tax. Assuming that the income effect of the tax-induced price change is negligible, the excess burden of the tax will be: a. $500,000 per year. b. $1 million per year. c. $2 million per year. d. $2.5 million per year. 3. The elasticity of supply of land is zero. A tax on land results only in an income effect to landlords. Then it follows that a 10-percent tax on land rents will: a. have a positive excess burden. b. be shifted forward to tenants. c. be paid entirely by landlords. d. have zero excess burden. e. both (c) and (d) 4. Currently, a 10-cent per gallon tax is levied on gasoline consumption. The tax is increased to 20 cents per gallon. The excess burden of the tax will: a. remain the same. b. double. c. increase four times. d. decline. 5. The supply of new cars is perfectly elastic. A $400 per car tax is levied on buyers. As a result of the tax, a. the price received by sellers will fall by $400. b. the price paid by buyers, including the tax, will increase by $400. c. the quantity of cars sold per year will be unchanged. d. the excess burden of the tax will be zero. e. both (c) and (d) 6. Other things being equal, the more inelastic the demand for a taxed good, a. the greater the portion of the tax paid by sellers. b. the greater the excess burden of the tax. c. the greater the portion of the tax paid by buyers. d. the less the portion of a tax on sellers that can be shifted to buyers. 7. The market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. However, the income effect of tax-induced wage changes are believed to be substantial. Then it follows that a tax on labor income will: a. have zero excess burden. b. have positive excess burden. c. be paid entirely by workers as a reduction in net wages. d. both (a) and (c) e. both (b) and (c) 8. Suppose an economy is comprised of only two markets: one for food and the other for housing. A tax on food used to finance transfer payments is likely to: a. decrease the price of food. b. increase the price of housing. c. decrease the price of housing. d. have no effect on either the price of food or housing. 9. Differential tax incidence measures the effect: a. that a tax and the expenditures it finances have on the distribution of income. b. that one tax alone has on the distribution of income. c. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while holding the size and composition of the budget fixed. d. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while changing the kinds of government services financed. 10. Most studies of tax incidence assume that taxes on labor income and other input services are borne entirely by the workers and other input owners that supply the services. This implies that the: a. supply of those input services is very elastic. b. supply of those input services is of unitary elasticity. c. supply of those input services is perfectly inelastic. d. demand for those input services is perfectly elastic. 11. Most studies show that the price elasticity of demand for gasoline is –0.2. If the price elasticity of supply is 2, then a tax on gasoline will: a. have no effect on the market equilibrium price of gasoline. b. cause the market equilibrium price of gasoline to fall. c. cause the market equilibrium price paid by buyers to rise. d. cause the net price received by sellers to fall. e. both (c) and (d) 12. The demand for medical care is very inelastic. If a 10-percent tax is levied on the sale of medical services and is collected from medical-care providers, then: a. the incidence of the tax is likely to be borne entirely by medical-care providers. b. most of the tax is likely to be shifted to those who purchase medical care. c. the market equilibrium price of medical care will fall. d. the excess burden of the tax is likely to be very high. 13. Which of the following is true about a lump-sum tax? a. It prevents efficiency from being attained in competitive markets. b. It causes substitution effects. c. It causes income effects. d. It causes both income effects and substitution effects. 14. Housing construction is generally believed to be an industry of constant costs. In the long run, which of the following is true if a $10 per square foot tax on housing construction is collected directly from builders? a. The incidence of the tax will be borne by builders. b. The excess burden of the tax will be zero. c. The quantity of new construction supplied will be unaffected. d. The tax will be fully shifted to buyers of new construction. 15. If the price elasticity of supply of labor is equal to 0.5 and the price elasticity of demand for labor is –2, then which of the following is likely to result from a tax on labor earnings? a. The tax will be fully borne by workers. b. Some of the tax will be shifted to employers as market equilibrium wages increase. c. Market equilibrium wages will decline. d. There will be no effect on market equilibrium wages. 16. If a lump-sum tax is imposed, the slope of the new budget line relative to the budget line prior to the tax: a. remains unchanged. b. increases. c. decrease. d. can increase and decrease in different regions. 17. Viewed from origin a price distorting tax creates a new budget line with a ______ slope relative to the budget line without the tax. a. less steep b. more steep c. similar d. varying 18. A $0.30 per unit tax is imposed on a good that reduces the quantity supplied and demanded by 1000 units. What is the deadweight loss (ignore price elasticities)? a. $300.00 b. $100.00 c. $150.00 d. Cannot be determined. 19. If a per unit tax is imposed, but the quantity supplied and demanded does not change then: a. the demand is perfectly inelastic. b. the supply is perfectly inelastic. c. there is no deadweight loss. d. All of the above. 20. The efficiency-loss ratio relative to tax is: a. the deadweight loss less the tax revenue. b. the deadweight loss divided by the tax revenue reduced by one. c. the excess burden divided by the tax revenue. d. None of the above. True/False Questions 1. From 1950 to 2009, the federal government budget has been in balance in most years. 2. The high employment budget deficit implies that increases in economic activity will not eliminate the actual deficit. 3. Other things being equal, an increase in government borrowing is likely to increase interest rates. 4. If taxpayers anticipate future tax increases when government borrows to finance deficits, increased government borrowing will increase interest rates. 5. As of 2008, the amount of federal debt outstanding was equal to twice the annual GDP. 6. From 1950 to 1980, the value of the federal debt as a percent of GDP declined. 7. More than 50 percent of the federal debt in recent years has been outside debt. 8. An increase in market rates of interest tends to decrease the market value of outstanding govern­ment debt. 9. Deficit finance postpones taxation from the present to the future. 10. The burden of the debt is borne by those who purchase government bonds. 11. The federal government budget recorded surpluses between 1998 and 2001. 12. State and local governments are usually required by state law to keep the budgets in balance. 13. If business and personal saving are constant, then a federal budget deficit will have no impact on national saving. 14. Other things being equal, a government surplus increases the supply of loanable funds available for investment. 15. State revenue bonds are backed by the taxing power of state governments. 16. A federal budget surplus can lead to more credit being available for productive activity. 17. A federal budget deficit can strain credit markets forcing the real rate of interest to decrease. 18. The U.S. deficit in the 1980s was structural in the sense that federal spending would exceed federal revenue even at a level of full employment. Multiple Choice Questions 1. The outstanding federal debt will decline in value if: a. budget deficits continue. b. the government runs a budget surplus. c. the market rate of interest increases. d. either (b) or (c) 2. The federal budget has been in deficit: a. for every year between 1970 and 1997. b. for every year between 1950 and 1997. c. only since 1980. d. for every year between 1960 and 1997. 3. The high employment deficit is estimated at $100 billion. Assuming that the economy is operating below full employment and that it will not overheat during the year, a. the actual budget is not in deficit. b. increasing GDP will eliminate the deficit. c. increasing GDP will not eliminate the deficit. d. the actual budget is in surplus. 4. An increase in government borrowing has no effect on the willingness of citizens to save or on the demand for credit. Increased borrowing to cover deficits will therefore: a. reduce interest rates. b. increase interest rates. c. have no effect on interest rates. d. not require increased taxes in the future. 5. As a result of government borrowing to cover deficits, citizens increase the supply of savings to provide themselves with funds to pay anticipated increases in future taxes. Then it follows that increased government borrowing will: a. reduce private investment. b. increase private investment. c. have no effect of private investment. d. increase interest rates. e. both (a) and (d) 6. The total dollar value of the federal debt outstanding is: a. more than 50 percent of GDP. b. more than 100 percent of GDP. c. less than 50 percent of GDP. d. less than 10 percent of GDP. 7. The federal government, its agencies, and the Federal Reserve System: a. are not permitted to hold outstanding federal debt. b. hold 50 percent of the outstanding federal debt. c. hold between 15 and 25 percent of the outstanding federal debt. d. hold 75 percent of the outstanding federal debt. 8. The largest portion of the net federal debt outstanding is owed to: a. foreigners. b. U.S. citizens and companies. c. federal government agencies. d. state and local governments. 9. The debt of state and local governments is mostly: a. internal. b. external. c. owed to citizens of other nations. d. worthless. 10. Government borrowing will: a. postpone taxation to the future. b. increase government interest cost. c. both (a) and (b) d. eliminate taxes. 11. Which of the following is true about the federal government budget balance in the United States? a. The federal budget has never had a surplus. b. The federal budget had a surplus every year from 1970 to 2008. c. The federal budget had a surplus from 1998 until 2001. d. The federal budget had a deficit from 1998 until 2001. 12. Which of the following can contribute to a decrease in national saving? a. a federal budget deficit b. an increase in the state and local government aggregate surplus c. a federal budget surplus d. an increase in personal saving 13. Other things being equal, a government budget surplus: a. increases the demand for loanable funds. b. increases the supply of loanable funds. c. is likely to increase market equilibrium interest rates. d. is unlikely to affect market equilibrium interest rates. 14. If the federal government runs a surplus consistently, then which of the following is likely to occur? a. National saving will decline. b. The gross federal debt will increase. c. The gross federal debt will decrease. d. Market equilibrium interest rates are likely to rise as a result of the surpluses. 15. General obligation bonds of state and local governments are: a. backed by revenue from public facilities such as sports stadiums. b. backed by the taxing power of state and local governments. c. usually used to finance transfer payments. d. usually used to finance capital expenditures. e. both (b) and (d) 16. A bond that is backed by the tolls collected from a bridge to be constructed from the proceeds of the bond is an example of: a. a general obligation bond. b. a non-obligation bond. c. a revenue bond. d. none of the above. 17. Evidence of “crowding out” in the market for loanable funds at a rate of 8% could be: a. private investors who will borrow only at a rate lower than 8%. b. private investors who are willing to accept a rate higher than 8% for borrowing. c. a government surplus. d. a social security surplus. 18. High-employment deficit or surplus is: a. an extreme economic situation requiring emergency measures. b. the amount of deficit or surplus available assuming current employment levels. c. the amount of deficit or surplus available when employment is at its approximately full capacity. d. the amount of deficit or surplus available when unemployment is at a relatively high level. 19. A government’s internal debt is: a. debt owed to other government agencies. b. debt owed to other governments. c. debt owed to its citizens. d. both (a) and (c). 20. The National Income and Product Accounts budget balance reflects: a. an inflation-adjusted budget balance less social security surplus. b. new debt resulting from a federal budget deficit. c. the real budget balance. d. the nominal budget balance.


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ECO 450 Week 7 Quiz 5 Ch 10

ECO 450 Week 7 Quiz 5 Ch 10 | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ECO 450 Week 7 Quiz 5 Ch 10 1. Taxes simultaneously ration and finance government goods and services. 2. The federal government finances only half of its expenditures with taxes. 3. The benefit principle argues that the means of financing government goods and services should be linked to the benefits received from those goods and services. 4. Horizontal equity is achieved when individuals of the same economic capacity pay the same amount of taxes over a given period. 5. A flat-rate income tax is a proportional tax on an income base. 6. The marginal tax rate will eventually exceed the average tax rate if the tax rate structure is propor­tional. 7. The marginal tax rate for a payroll tax is 7 percent on all wages up to $60,000 per year. The marginal tax rate for wages in excess of $60,000 per year is zero. The payroll tax is therefore a regressive tax. 8. Tax evasion would be less of a problem if tax rates were lowered. 9. The user charge for a congestible public good should be zero at all times. 10. Zero prices for price-excludable government services provide benefits only to the poor. 11. The gasoline tax is an example of a general tax on consumption. 12. For a proportional tax, the marginal tax rate is always equal to the average tax rate. 13. Tax avoidance is an illegal activity in the United States. 14. An increase in marginal tax rates is likely to increase tax evasion. 15. Most studies indicate that state-run lotteries are equivalent to a progressive tax on gambling. 16. Government activity requires the reallocation of resources from government to private use. 17. A flat income tax (i.e. a fixed amount paid by every taxpayer) is an example of a selective tax. 18. The average tax rate and marginal tax rate are the same under a progressive tax rate structure. Multiple Choice Questions 1. According to the benefit principle, a. taxes should be distributed according to ability to pay. b. user charges are an ideal source of finance for government goods and services. c. the progressive income tax represents the ideal way of distributing taxes among citizens. d. flat-rate taxes are always the best kind. 2. If horizontal equity is achieved in taxation, a. vertical equity will also be achieved. b. individuals of equal economic capacity will pay equal taxes. c. a flat-rate tax will be used. d. the tax system will not result in losses in efficiency in markets. 3. The tax base of a payroll tax is: a. consumer expenditures. b. interest income. c. labor income. d. both (b) and (c) 4. A 5-percent retail sales tax on all consumer purchases in a state is imposed. The sales tax is: a. a flat-rate tax. b. a tax with a regressive rate structure. c. levied on an income base. d. all of the above 5. A tax on the value of real estate holdings is a: a. selective tax on wealth. b. general tax on wealth. c. general tax on income. d. selective tax on income. 6. An excise tax is a: a. general consumption tax. b. selective consumption tax. c. general wealth tax. d. selective tax on wealth. 7. A proportional income tax has an average tax rate that: a. always is less than the marginal tax rate. b. always exceeds the marginal tax rate. c. equals the marginal tax rate at first and then becomes less than the marginal tax rate. d. always equals the marginal tax rate. 8. A payroll tax taxes a worker’s wages at 14 percent until the worker earns $60,000 per year. All labor earnings in excess of $60,000 are not subject to tax. The tax rate structure of the payroll tax is therefore: a. proportional. b. progressive. c. regressive. d. flat-rate. 9. A bridge becomes congested after 100 vehicles per hour use it on any day. To achieve efficiency, a toll: a. that charges all users of the bridge, no matter how many vehicles use it per hour, should be imposed. b. on additional users in excess of 100 per hour should be imposed. c. on all users should be imposed, if more than 100 users per hour are expected. d. is not required. 10. A government prints money to finance its expenditures. As a result, a. the economy can operate at a point outside its production possibility curve. b. inflation will occur. c. consumers will give up private goods to finance the increased government expenditures. d. both (b) and (c) 11. Taxes are likely to affect: a. market equilibrium. b. political equilibrium. c. the distribution of income. d. all of the above 12. Taxes: a. are voluntary payments to governments. b. are unlikely to affect market supply and demand. c. never affect efficiency in the allocation of resources. d. are compulsory payments associated with certain activities. 13. A tax on real estate is a: a. general wealth tax. b. general consumption tax. c. selective wealth tax. d. selective income tax. 14. The marginal tax rate will eventually exceed the average tax rate for a: a. proportional tax. b. regressive tax. c. progressive tax. d. flat-rate tax. 15. Marginal tax rates were reduced in 2001. Other things being equal, this is likely to: a. increase tax evasion. b. decrease tax evasion. c. have no effect on tax evasion. d. increase tax avoidance. 16. What is an example of a normative criterion that a government must trade-off in its method of taxation? a. Equity b. Efficiency c. Administrative ease d. all of the above 17. Tax avoidance is: a. a means of tax evasion. b. a means of decreasing taxes paid by adjusting behavior. c. a political process explicitly for the reduction of taxation. d. a means to avoid tax owed. 18. If the marginal tax rate is 20% under a proportional tax rate structure, the average tax rate: a. should be 20%. b. should be above 20%. c. should be below 20%. d. cannot be determined. 19. If the average tax rate under a progressive tax rate structure is 35%, a possible marginal tax rate is: a. 30%. b. 25%. c. 42%. d. not able to be determined. 20. Which of the following countries has the highest average tax rate relative to GDP? a. Japan b. Sweden c. Iceland d. United Kingdom


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ECO 450 Week 5 Midterm Exam

ECO 450 Week 5 Midterm Exam | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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Many Other Questions are also Included 1. On average, persons in the United States devote more of their annual budgets to taxes than they do to food. 2. A universally observed function of government is the establishment of property rights. 3. The total share of GDP accounted for by government spending in the United States has declined significantly since 1980. 4. In 1929, the federal government spent more than was spent by state and local governments. 5. Since 1930, the percent of GDP devoted to government expenditures has more than tripled. 6. The costs imposed by government regulations on business firms are included in budget data on government expenditures. 7. Government consumption does not require resources to be reallocated from private to government use. 8. Since 1959, the percent of federal government expenditures devoted to transfers has increased by more than 50 percent. 9. Transfer payments, including Social Security and welfare and medical assistance, account for nearly 60 percent of federal government expenditures. 10. Interest on the federal government’s debt accounts for about 20 percent of federal government expenditure. 11. Federal grants-in-aid to state and local governments finance about 20 percent of annual spending by these governments. 12. The federal government allocates about 10 percent of its budget to Social Security. 13. State and local governments in the United States spend a bit more than one-third of their budgets on education. 14. Sales taxes account for about 22 percent of state and local government revenue in the United States. 15. The federal government obtains about half of its revenue annually from retail sales taxes. 16. State governments do not fund any part of Medicaid. 17. The social compact is an 18th century idea by political theorists. 18. The proportion of revenue received by the federal government from payroll taxes is higher than the proportion of revenue received by state and local governments from payroll taxes. Multiple Choice Questions 1. The real cost of government goods and services is: a. money. b. taxes. c. the private goods and services foregone. d. inflation. 2. If the economy is currently operating on a point on the production possibility curve for government goods and services versus private goods and services, a. an annual increase in government goods and services can be obtained without any sacrifice of annual private goods and services. b. it will be impossible to increase annual output of government goods and services. c. a decrease in the annual output of government goods and services will have no effect on the annual output of private goods and services. d. a decrease in the annual output of government goods and services will allow an increase in annual output of private goods and services. 3. Government goods and services are usually: a. not rationed by prices. b. sold in markets. c. made available to persons according to their willingness and ability to pay. d. financed by revenue obtained from sales. 4. Taxes: a. are prices paid for the right to consume government goods and services. b. are compulsory payments not directly related to the benefits received from government goods and services. c. never affect economic incentives. d. are used by private firms to raise revenue. 5. A mixed economy is one in which: a. there are no markets. b. government activity accounts for a significant proportion of the value of goods and services produced. c. there is no government. d. all goods and services are sold in markets. 6. Government purchases for consumption and investment: a. are made to acquire resources necessary to produce government goods and services. b. are designed to redistribute purchasing power among citizens. c. have increased in importance as a percent of federal spending since 1959. d. do not withdraw resources from private use. 7. Transfer payments by the federal government in the United States account for about: a. 25 percent of federal government expenditures. b. 10 percent of federal government expenditures. c. 40 percent of GDP. d. 60 percent of federal government expenditures. 8. Total annual expenditures by federal, state, and local governments in the United States in the 1990s accounted for roughly: a. 20 percent of annual GDP. b. 30 percent of annual GDP. c. 50 percent of annual GDP. d. 75 percent of annual GDP. 9. Federal government expenditures in the United States account for about: a. 23 percent of annual GDP. b. 33 percent of annual GDP. c. 43 percent of annual GDP. d. 53 percent of annual GDP. 10. About 80 percent of federal receipts are accounted for by: a. corporate profits taxes. b. sales taxes. c. excise taxes. d. payroll and personal income taxes. 11. If the economy is operating at full employment and using resources efficiently, then an increase in spending for homeland security this year will: a. require that resources be reallocated to homeland security services without sacrificing any alternative goods and services. b. be possible if resources are reallocated to homeland security services, but it will also mean that the output of some other goods and services will have to fall. c. be impossible. d. be possible only if there is an improvement in technology or more resources made available. 12. Which of the following is an example of a political institution? a. a market b. elections with winners determined by majority rule c. representative government d. both (b) and (c) 13. Nonmarket rationing means that: a. those willing to pay can buy as much of a product as they choose. b. prices are used to sell products. c. goods and services are not rationed by prices. d. willingness to pay is not a factor in determining who can enjoy a good or service. e. both (c) and (d) 14. The U.S. economy is best characterized as a: a. pure market economy. b. socialist economy. c. pure capitalistic, free-enterprise system. d. mixed economy. 15. State and local government expenditure in the United States accounts for about: a. 32 percent of GDP. b. 22 percent of GDP. c. 12 percent of GDP. d. 7 percent of GDP. 16. Following the circular flow of a mixed economy, firms receive a flow of dollars from and send goods and services to: a. Output Markets. b. Input Markets. c. Households. d. Government. 17. Following the circular flow of a mixed economy, which entity or entities distribute resources? a. Firms only. b. Input Markets only. c. Government and Households. d. Households and Input Markets. 18. When has the U.S. experienced government expenditures in the range of 40% to 50% of GDP? a. 2000 to 2009. b. 1950 to 1959. c. 1940 to 1949. d. It has never happened. 19. In 2008, which country listed below has the highest percentage of government spending relative to GDP? a. France. b. Ireland. c. Japan. d. Canada. 20. The old-age dependency ratio is: a. the proportion of the population that is 60 years or older over the proportion of the population that is less than 60 years of age. b. the proportion of the population that is 65 years or older over the proportion of the population that is 15 to 64 years of age. c. the proportion of the population that is 70 years or older over the proportion of the population that is 20 to 69 years of age. d. the total government expenditure on programs for the elderly over the number of citizens that are 65 years or older. True/False Questions 1. The normative approach to public finance prescribes certain actions to achieve predetermined criteria. 2. Positive economic analysis is based on underlying value judgments. 3. “The government should abolish tariffs to achieve efficiency” is a normative statement. 4. It is possible for efficiency not to be attained even if all production is carried on without waste. 5. Efficiency is attained when resources are used each year in such a way that no further net gain is possible. 6. The efficient annual output of any given good is attained if that good is made available in amounts up to the point at which the total social benefit of the good equals the total social cost. 7. If the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors exceeds its marginal social cost, then additional net gains are possible from an increased annual smoke detector production. 8. Monopoly power causes losses in efficiency because the marginal social benefit of output exceeds its marginal social cost at the monopoly output. 9. Government regulations that require airlines to serve routes for which the maximum price that pas­sengers are willing to pay for a trip fall short of the minimum price that sellers are willing to accept are likely to cause losses in efficiency. 10. Points lying below a utility possibility curve are efficient. 11. Government programs can achieve efficiency when the gains to gainers from those policies exceed the losses to those who bear the costs. 12. If the marginal social cost of beer production exceeds its marginal social benefit, then more than the efficient about of beer is being produced. 13. Efficient outcomes are often viewed as inequitable. 14. If it is not possible to make someone better off without harming another, then resource allocation is efficient. 15. Compensation criteria are used to argue that changes in resource allocation should be made if the gains to some groups outweigh the losses to others, even though compensation for losses is not actually made. 16. All points on a utility possibility curve are efficient but differ in terms of the distribution of well-being. 17. A tax on a product shifts the demand curve. 18. A government subsidized price for a commodity that is higher than the market driven price results in oversupply relative to the efficient allocation. 19. When comparing the allocation of two goods relative to two consumers with individual utility functions, multiple points of Pareto efficiency can exist. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Positive economics: a. makes recommendations designed to achieve certain goals. b. establishes cause-and-effect relationships between economic variables. c. is based on value judgments. d. can never be used to make predictions. 2. If the efficient output of a good is produced each week, then the: a. marginal social benefit of the good equals its marginal social cost each week. b. marginal social benefit of the good is at a maximum. c. total social benefit of the good is at a maximum. d. total social benefit of the good equals its total social cost. 3. If the marginal social benefit of a good exceeds the marginal social cost at the current monthly output, then: a. it will be possible to make buyers of the good better off without harming sellers of the good. b. it will be possible to make sellers of the good better off without harming buyers of the good. c. either (a) or (b) d. a reduction in monthly output will be required for efficiency. 4. The marginal social cost of bread exceeds the marginal social benefit at the current weekly output. Therefore, a. the marginal net benefit of bread is positive. b. the output of bread is efficient. c. a reduction in weekly output of bread is necessary to achieve efficiency. d. an increase in weekly output of bread is necessary to achieve efficiency. 5. The total social benefit of automobiles equals the total social cost at current annual output. Then it follows that: a. the annual output of automobiles is efficient. b. the annual output of automobiles exceeds the efficient amount. c. less than the efficient annual output of automobiles is produced. d. it is not possible to make buyers of automobiles better off without harming sellers. e. both (a) and (d) 6. Eggs are sold in a perfectly competitive market. No persons other than the buyers and sellers of eggs are affected in any way when eggs are traded in the market. Then it follows that: a. the price of eggs equals the marginal social cost of eggs. b. the price of eggs equals the marginal social benefit of eggs. c. the price of eggs exceeds the marginal social benefit of eggs. d. both (a) and (b) 7. Diamonds are sold by a monopoly firm that maximizes profits. Then it follows that: a. the marginal social benefit of diamonds exceeds its marginal social cost. b. the marginal social cost of diamonds exceeds its marginal social benefit. c. the price of diamonds equals its marginal social cost. d. the price of diamonds exceeds its marginal social benefit. e. both (c) and (d) 8. Points on a utility possibility curve represent: a. a given distribution of well-being between two persons. b. an efficient allocation of resources. c. the maximum well-being of any one person, given the resources available and the well-being of another person. d. all of the above 9. If efficiency has been attained, a. it will be possible to make any one person better off without harming another. b. it will not be possible to make any one person better off without harming another. c. perfect competition must exist. d. the opportunity cost of any change in resource use must be zero. 10. A move from an inefficient resource allocation to an efficient one: a. will always be unanimously approved, even if gainers do not compensate losers. b. will be unanimously opposed. c. will be unanimously approved if gainers compensate losers. d. can never result in losers. 11. Which of the following is a normative statement? a. When interest rates rise, the quantity of loanable funds demanded for new mortgages will decline. b. To achieve efficiency, governments should prevent monopoly in markets. c. Unemployment increases during a recession. d. When governments increase income tax rates, people work less. 12. Normative economics: a. is not based on underlying value judgments. b. makes recommendations to achieve efficient outcomes. c. establishes cause-and-effect relationships between economic variables. d. makes “if…then” type statements and checks them against the facts. 13. The extra benefit on one more unit of a good or service is its: a. marginal cost. b. marginal benefit. c. total benefit. d. total cost. 14. If the efficient output of computers is achieved this year, then market price of computers is equal to: a. the marginal social benefit of computers. b. the marginal social cost of computers. c. the total social cost of computers. d. the total social benefit of computers. e. both (a) and (b) 15. Suppose the efficient output currently prevails in the market for ice cream. A tax on ice cream con­sumption will: a. allow efficiency to continue to prevail in the market. b. result in more than the efficient output in the market. c. result in less than the efficient output in the market. d. cause the marginal social cost of ice cream to exceed its marginal social benefit at the market equilibrium output. 16. Positive economics is: a. an equity based approach in which income should be redistributed. b. an objective approach without a particular goal based on underlying values. c. a goal oriented approach based on desired policy outcomes. d. a belief that governments can implement economic policies for the greater good of society. 17. Normative economics is: a. completely free of any value system. b. completely objective. c. based on a a conscious effort to implement a particular social goal. d. an approach that determines the effect of particular actions without judgment of the result being good or bad. 18. An efficient level of output means: a. the total social benefit less the total social cost is maximized. b. the total social benefit is below the total social cost. c. the total social cost equals the total social benefit. d. the total social benefit less the total social cost can be improved. 19. If a government desires to increase production beyond the current competitively determined efficient level, the government should: a. tax the good. b. subsidize the good at a price higher than its current price. c. set the price below its current price. d. impose a fixed fee whenever the good is purchased. 20. Pareto efficiency between two consumers is achieved: a. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are equal to the marginal rate of transformation. b. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are less than one, but not necessarily equal. c. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are greater than one and equal. d. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are equal. True/False Questions 1. If a negative externality exists for sales of gasoline in a competitive market, more than the efficient amount of gasoline will be sold per year. 2. If the marginal external cost of pollution increases with the annual output of polluting goods, then the total external cost will increase at a constant rate with annual output. 3. When a positive externality exists, benefit to third parties other than the buyers and sellers of a good will result from market exchange of the good. 4. The marginal external benefit of the sale of smoke detectors in a city declines with annual output. The total external benefit of smoke detectors will therefore eventually become zero. 5. When a negative externality exists, the marginal social cost of annual output sold in a competitive market will exceed the marginal social benefit of that output in equilibrium. 6. If a negative externality is associated with the sale of wood stoves, then the marginal private cost of those stoves is less than their marginal social cost. 7. If a positive externality is associated with college enrollment, then when college instruction is pro­vided in a competitive market, the marginal social benefit of enrollment will exceed its marginal social cost in equilibrium. 8. At the current level of annual supply of inoculations against polio, the marginal external benefit of an inoculation is zero. To achieve efficiency, a corrective subsidy must be provided to those being inoculated. 9. To internalize an externality, a corrective tax must be set equal to the marginal external cost. 10. According to the Coase theorem, corrective taxes are necessary to internalize negative externalities when the transactions costs of exchanging property rights to use resources are zero. 11. The efficient amount of pollution abatement is likely to be 100 percent. 12. Pollution rights can be used to price the right to emit pollutants and to provide incentives to reduce emissions by profit-maximizing firms. 13. Emissions standards allow businesses to emit waste at zero cost until the limits set by the standards are reached. 14. The market for sulfur dioxide allowance trading has lowered the cost of achieving a given reduc­tion in sulfur dioxide emissions by electric power-generating plants. 15. Command-and-control regulation to reduce emissions is likely to be a less costly way of reducing a given amount of emissions than tradeable emissions permits. 16. When negative externalities exist, perfectly competitive markets produce less than the efficient output. 17. A toll road used to subsidize public transportation in an effort to reduce pollution is an example of a corrective tax. 18. Assuming no externalities and a competitive environment, the marginal private cost is equal to the marginal social cost. 19. Assuming a negative externality, the price of a good will be lower than if the price was set in a competitive environment without an externality. Multiple Choice Questions 1. A negative externality results from the sale of firewood in competitive markets. Then it follows that: a. the marginal private cost of firewood is less than its marginal social cost. b. the marginal private cost of firewood exceeds its marginal social cost. c. the marginal private benefit of firewood is less than its marginal social benefit. d. the marginal private benefit of firewood exceeds its marginal social benefit. 2. If a negative externality prevails in a competitive market for air travel, then: a. more than the efficient amount of annual air travel will be consumed in equilibrium. b. less than the efficient amount of annual air travel will be consumed in equilibrium. c. the marginal social cost of air travel will exceed its marginal social benefit in equilibrium. d. both (a) and (c) e. both (b) and (c) 3. A positive externality results from the purchase of smoke detectors. If smoke detectors are sold in a competitive market, a. the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors is less than the marginal private benefit received by any consumer. b. the marginal social benefit will exceed the marginal private benefit received by any consumer. c. in equilibrium the marginal social cost of smoke detectors will equal the marginal social benefit. d. in equilibrium the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors is zero. 4. The marginal external cost associated with air pollution increases with the annual output of a pollut­ing industry. At the current competitive equilibrium level of output per year, the marginal external cost is $10 per unit of output. To achieve efficiency, a. a corrective tax of $10 per unit of output is required. b. a corrective tax of more than $10 per unit of output is required. c. a corrective tax of less than $10 per unit of output is required. d. a corrective subsidy of $10 per unit of output is required. e. a corrective subsidy of less than $10 per unit of output is required . 5. The marginal external cost associated with paper production is constant at $10 per ton per year. The competitive market equilibrium for paper production is currently 10 million tons per year. A corrective tax on paper production: a. will collect $100 million annually. b. will collect more than $100 million annually. c. will collect less than $100 million annually. d. will reduce annual damages to those other than buyers and sellers of paper to zero. e. both (a) and (d) 6. The marginal external cost per unit of effluent discharged into a river by a perfectly competitive chemical industry is currently estimated to be $50 per ton per year. Which of the following state­ments is true? a. Efficiency can be achieved with a $50 per ton annual effluent charge. b. At the competitive equilibrium output, the marginal social benefit of discharging effluent is $50. c. Efficiency can be achieved by banning discharge of effluent. d. At the efficient output, the marginal social benefit of discharging effluent will be zero. 7. Electric power is produced by an unregulated monopoly in a certain region. The monopolistic elec­tric power company’s production of electricity results in $10 per kilowatt hour of pollution damage to parties other than the buyers of electricity in the region. To achieve efficiency, a. a $10 per kilowatt hour corrective tax is required. b. more than $10 per kilowatt hour corrective tax is required. c. a $10 corrective subsidy is required. d. less than $10 per kilowatt hour corrective tax is required. 8. The competitive market equilibrium price of sanitation services in a small town with no government-supplied sanitation services is $2 per trash pickup. There is a $1 marginal external benefit associated with each trash pickup. The elasticity of supply of trash pickups is infinite in the long run, implying a horizontal supply curve. To achieve the efficient output of sanitation services, a. a corrective subsidy must increase the price received by suppliers to $3 per pickup. b. a corrective subsidy must decrease the price paid by consumers of sanitation services to $1 per pickup. c. a corrective tax of $1 per pickup is required. d. a corrective subsidy must increase the price paid by buyers to $3 per pickup. 9. The current competitive market price of fish is $3 per pound. A chemical producer emits effluent into a lake used by a commercial fishing firm. Each ton of chemical output causes a 20-pound reduction in the annual catch of the fishing firm. Assuming that transactions costs are zero and the chemical firm has the legal right to dump effluent into the lake, a. the fishing firm would be willing to pay up to $60 per ton of chemicals per year to induce the chemical firm to reduce chemical output. b. the fishing firm would be willing to pay up to $3 per ton of chemicals per year to induce the chemical firm to reduce chemical output. c. the chemical firm would never consider the damage caused by its effluent. d. government intervention is required to achieve efficiency. 10. According to the Coase theorem, externalities can be internalized when transactions costs are zero through: a. corrective taxes and subsidies. b. effluent fees. c. assigning property rights to resource use but outlawing their exchange. d. assignment of property rights to use resources and allowing free exchange of assigned property rights. 11. Which of the following is true if a negative externality is associated with the sale of gasoline? a. Third parties other than the buyers and sellers of gasoline receive benefits. b. Third parties other than the buyers and sellers of gasoline bear costs. c. The marginal social cost of gasoline exceeds its marginal private cost. d. both (b) and (c) 12. If a positive externality prevails in the market for smoke detectors, then when the market is in equilibrium, a. the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors exceeds the marginal social cost. b. the marginal social cost of smoke detectors exceeds the marginal social benefit. c. the marginal social cost of smoke detectors is equal to the marginal social benefit. d. more than the efficient amount of smoke detectors is sold. 13. Regulations require that emissions of carbon monoxide be limited to 1,000 tons per 100 square miles for all regions of the nation. If the marginal external cost of the emissions varies among regions in the nation, then the regulations will: a. achieve the efficient amount of pollution abatement. b. achieve more than the efficient amount of pollution abatement. c. achieve less than the efficient amount of pollution abatement. d. be likely to achieve more than the efficient amount of abatement in some regions, but less than the efficient amount in others. 14. If the marginal costs of reducing emissions varies among regions, then regulations requiring all regions in a nation to reduce emissions by the same amount will achieve: a. the efficient amount of pollution abatement. b. more than the efficient amount of pollution abatement. c. less than the efficient amount of pollution abatement. d. more than the efficient amount of pollution abatement in some regions, but less than the efficient amount in other regions. 15. Which of the following is true about command-and-control regulation that allows businesses to emit pollutants up to a certain point and bans emissions after that limit is reached? a. They are equivalent to emissions charges. b. They make firms pay the marginal cost of the damages done by their emissions, no matter what the level. c. They allow firms to emit some pollutants at zero charge. d. They are likely to minimize the cost of achieving any given reduction in emissions. 16. Assuming a product can be manufactured competitively without any externalities at an efficient quantity of 1,000 units and an efficient price of $100.00 per unit, what efficient quantity-price combination would be consistent with a negative externality? a. 1,000 units, $95.00 per unit price. b. 950 units, $102.00 per unit price. c. 900 units, $90.00 per unit price. d. 1,100 units, $105 per unit price. 17. The effect of a negative externality is similar to: a. A supply curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left. b. A supply curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right. c. A demand curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left. d. A demand curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right. 18. Assuming a product can be manufactured competitively without any externalities at an efficient quantity of 1,500 units and an efficient price of $50.00 per unit, what efficient quantity-price combination would be consistent with a positive externality? a. 1,500 units, $60.00 per unit price. b. 1,300 units, $45.00 per unit price. c. 1,600 units, $40.00 per unit price. d. 1,700 units, $56.00 per unit price. 19. The effect of a positive externality is similar to: a. A supply curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left. b. A supply curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right. c. A demand curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left. d. A demand curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right. 20. Assuming a product can be manufactured competitively without any externalities at an efficient quantity of 500 units and an efficient price of $150.00 per unit, what efficient quantity-price net subsidy combination would be consistent with a corrective subsidy for a positive externality? a. 500 units, $150.00 per unit price net subsidy. b. 300 units, $120.00 per unit price net subsidy. c. 600 units, $160.00 per unit price net subsidy. d. 700 units, $100.00 per unit price net subsidy. True/False Questions 1. Bread is an example of a good that is nonrival in consumption. 2. A pure public good is one for which it is easy to exclude consumers from benefits if they refuse to pay. 3. The marginal social cost of producing another unit of a pure public good will always be positive. 4. To obtain a demand curve for a pure public good, the marginal benefit of each consumer must be summed for each possible quantity produced per time period. 5. If the efficient amount of a pure public good is produced, each person consumes it up to the point at which his or her marginal benefit equals the marginal social cost of the good. 6. In a Lindahl equilibrium, each consumer of a pure public good consumes the same quantity and pays a tax share per unit of the good equal to his or her marginal benefit. 7. If the marginal social cost of a pure public good exceeds its marginal social benefit, additional units of the good can still be financed by voluntary contributions. 8. The free-rider problem is less acute in small groups than it is in large groups. 9. A congestible public good is one for which the marginal cost of allowing an additional consumer to enjoy the benefits of a given quantity is always zero. 10. Television programming is a good example of a price-excludable public good. 11. It is possible to price a pure public good and sell it by the unit. 12. The demand curve for a pure public good is obtained by adding the quantities demanded by each individual consumer at each possible price. 13. A Lindahl equilibrium usually has each participant paying the same tax share per unit of a public good even though their marginal benefit of that unit varies. 14. Internet service is an example of a price-excludable public good. 15. Clubs are a means of providing congestible public goods through markets. 16. A common way to fund a public good is through a government that raises funds through taxation. 17. Private education is an example of a price-excludable public good. 18. A congestible good has no limits in how much it can be consumed. Multiple Choice Questions 1. A pure public good is: a. one that can easily be sold by the unit. b. one that is nonrival in consumption. c. one whose benefits are not subject to exclusion. d. both (b) and (c) 2. The marginal cost of providing a certain quantity of a pure public good to an additional consumer after it is provided to any one consumer is: a. zero. b. positive and increasing. c. positive and decreasing. d. positive and constant. 3. The nonrival property of pure public goods implies that the: a. benefits enjoyed by existing consumers decline as more consumers enjoy a given quantity of the good. b. benefits enjoyed by existing consumers are unaffected as more consumers enjoy a given quan­tity of the good. c. good cannot be priced. d. marginal cost of producing the good is zero. 4. The demand curve for a pure public good is: a. a horizontal line. b. obtained by adding the quantities individual consumers would purchase at each possible price. c. obtained by adding the marginal benefit obtained by each consumer at each possible quantity. d. the marginal cost curve for the pure public good. 5. The efficient output of a pure public good is achieved at the point at which: a. the marginal benefit obtained by each consumer equals the marginal social cost of producing the good. b. the sum of the marginal benefits of all consumers equals the marginal social cost of producing the good.




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ECO 450 Week 3 Quiz 2 Ch. 2 and 3

ECO 450 Week 3 Quiz 2 Ch. 2 and 3 | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
eco 450 week 3 quiz 2 ch 2 and 3,eco 450,eco 450 entire course,eco 450 stayer,stayer eco 450,eco 450 week 5 midterm,eco 450 week 3 quiz 2,eco 450 week 11 final, eco 450 week 3 quiz 2 ch 2 and 3, eco 450 week 3 quiz 2 ch 2 and 3help,stayer eco 450 week 3 q
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ECO 450 Week 3 Quiz 2 Ch. 2 and 3 1. The normative approach to public finance prescribes certain actions to achieve predetermined criteria. 2. Positive economic analysis is based on underlying value judgments. 3. “The government should abolish tariffs to achieve efficiency” is a normative statement. 4. It is possible for efficiency not to be attained even if all production is carried on without waste. 5. Efficiency is attained when resources are used each year in such a way that no further net gain is possible. 6. The efficient annual output of any given good is attained if that good is made available in amounts up to the point at which the total social benefit of the good equals the total social cost. 7. If the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors exceeds its marginal social cost, then additional net gains are possible from an increased annual smoke detector production. 8. Monopoly power causes losses in efficiency because the marginal social benefit of output exceeds its marginal social cost at the monopoly output. 9. Government regulations that require airlines to serve routes for which the maximum price that pas­sengers are willing to pay for a trip fall short of the minimum price that sellers are willing to accept are likely to cause losses in efficiency. 10. Points lying below a utility possibility curve are efficient. 11. Government programs can achieve efficiency when the gains to gainers from those policies exceed the losses to those who bear the costs. 12. If the marginal social cost of beer production exceeds its marginal social benefit, then more than the efficient about of beer is being produced. 13. Efficient outcomes are often viewed as inequitable. 14. If it is not possible to make someone better off without harming another, then resource allocation is efficient. 15. Compensation criteria are used to argue that changes in resource allocation should be made if the gains to some groups outweigh the losses to others, even though compensation for losses is not actually made. 16. All points on a utility possibility curve are efficient but differ in terms of the distribution of well-being. 17. A tax on a product shifts the demand curve. 18. A government subsidized price for a commodity that is higher than the market driven price results in oversupply relative to the efficient allocation. 19. When comparing the allocation of two goods relative to two consumers with individual utility functions, multiple points of Pareto efficiency can exist. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Positive economics: a. makes recommendations designed to achieve certain goals. b. establishes cause-and-effect relationships between economic variables. c. is based on value judgments. d. can never be used to make predictions. 2. If the efficient output of a good is produced each week, then the: a. marginal social benefit of the good equals its marginal social cost each week. b. marginal social benefit of the good is at a maximum. c. total social benefit of the good is at a maximum. d. total social benefit of the good equals its total social cost. 3. If the marginal social benefit of a good exceeds the marginal social cost at the current monthly output, then: a. it will be possible to make buyers of the good better off without harming sellers of the good. b. it will be possible to make sellers of the good better off without harming buyers of the good. c. either (a) or (b) d. a reduction in monthly output will be required for efficiency. 4. The marginal social cost of bread exceeds the marginal social benefit at the current weekly output. Therefore, a. the marginal net benefit of bread is positive. b. the output of bread is efficient. c. a reduction in weekly output of bread is necessary to achieve efficiency. d. an increase in weekly output of bread is necessary to achieve efficiency. 5. The total social benefit of automobiles equals the total social cost at current annual output. Then it follows that: a. the annual output of automobiles is efficient. b. the annual output of automobiles exceeds the efficient amount. c. less than the efficient annual output of automobiles is produced. d. it is not possible to make buyers of automobiles better off without harming sellers. e. both (a) and (d) 6. Eggs are sold in a perfectly competitive market. No persons other than the buyers and sellers of eggs are affected in any way when eggs are traded in the market. Then it follows that: a. the price of eggs equals the marginal social cost of eggs. b. the price of eggs equals the marginal social benefit of eggs. c. the price of eggs exceeds the marginal social benefit of eggs. d. both (a) and (b) 7. Diamonds are sold by a monopoly firm that maximizes profits. Then it follows that: a. the marginal social benefit of diamonds exceeds its marginal social cost. b. the marginal social cost of diamonds exceeds its marginal social benefit. c. the price of diamonds equals its marginal social cost. d. the price of diamonds exceeds its marginal social benefit. e. both (c) and (d) 8. Points on a utility possibility curve represent: a. a given distribution of well-being between two persons. b. an efficient allocation of resources. c. the maximum well-being of any one person, given the resources available and the well-being of another person. d. all of the above 9. If efficiency has been attained, a. it will be possible to make any one person better off without harming another. b. it will not be possible to make any one person better off without harming another. c. perfect competition must exist. d. the opportunity cost of any change in resource use must be zero. 10. A move from an inefficient resource allocation to an efficient one: a. will always be unanimously approved, even if gainers do not compensate losers. b. will be unanimously opposed. c. will be unanimously approved if gainers compensate losers. d. can never result in losers. 11. Which of the following is a normative statement? a. When interest rates rise, the quantity of loanable funds demanded for new mortgages will decline. b. To achieve efficiency, governments should prevent monopoly in markets. c. Unemployment increases during a recession. d. When governments increase income tax rates, people work less. 12. Normative economics: a. is not based on underlying value judgments. b. makes recommendations to achieve efficient outcomes. c. establishes cause-and-effect relationships between economic variables. d. makes “if…then” type statements and checks them against the facts. 13. The extra benefit on one more unit of a good or service is its: a. marginal cost. b. marginal benefit. c. total benefit. d. total cost. 14. If the efficient output of computers is achieved this year, then market price of computers is equal to: a. the marginal social benefit of computers. b. the marginal social cost of computers. c. the total social cost of computers. d. the total social benefit of computers. e. both (a) and (b) 15. Suppose the efficient output currently prevails in the market for ice cream. A tax on ice cream con­sumption will: a. allow efficiency to continue to prevail in the market. b. result in more than the efficient output in the market. c. result in less than the efficient output in the market. d. cause the marginal social cost of ice cream to exceed its marginal social benefit at the market equilibrium output. 16. Positive economics is: a. an equity based approach in which income should be redistributed. b. an objective approach without a particular goal based on underlying values. c. a goal oriented approach based on desired policy outcomes. d. a belief that governments can implement economic policies for the greater good of society. 17. Normative economics is: a. completely free of any value system. b. completely objective. c. based on a a conscious effort to implement a particular social goal. d. an approach that determines the effect of particular actions without judgment of the result being good or bad. 18. An efficient level of output means: a. the total social benefit less the total social cost is maximized. b. the total social benefit is below the total social cost. c. the total social cost equals the total social benefit. d. the total social benefit less the total social cost can be improved. 19. If a government desires to increase production beyond the current competitively determined efficient level, the government should: a. tax the good. b. subsidize the good at a price higher than its current price. c. set the price below its current price. d. impose a fixed fee whenever the good is purchased. 20. Pareto efficiency between two consumers is achieved: a. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are equal to the marginal rate of transformation. b. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are less than one, but not necessarily equal. c. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are greater than one and equal. d. only when the individual marginal rates of substitution are equal. Chapter 3 Externalities and Government Policy True/False Questions 1. If a negative externality exists for sales of gasoline in a competitive market, more than the efficient amount of gasoline will be sold per year. 2. If the marginal external cost of pollution increases with the annual output of polluting goods, then the total external cost will increase at a constant rate with annual output. 3. When a positive externality exists, benefit to third parties other than the buyers and sellers of a good will result from market exchange of the good. 4. The marginal external benefit of the sale of smoke detectors in a city declines with annual output. The total external benefit of smoke detectors will therefore eventually become zero. 5. When a negative externality exists, the marginal social cost of annual output sold in a competitive market will exceed the marginal social benefit of that output in equilibrium. 6. If a negative externality is associated with the sale of wood stoves, then the marginal private cost of those stoves is less than their marginal social cost. 7. If a positive externality is associated with college enrollment, then when college instruction is pro­vided in a competitive market, the marginal social benefit of enrollment will exceed its marginal social cost in equilibrium. 8. At the current level of annual supply of inoculations against polio, the marginal external benefit of an inoculation is zero. To achieve efficiency, a corrective subsidy must be provided to those being inoculated. 9. To internalize an externality, a corrective tax must be set equal to the marginal external cost. 10. According to the Coase theorem, corrective taxes are necessary to internalize negative externalities when the transactions costs of exchanging property rights to use resources are zero. 11. The efficient amount of pollution abatement is likely to be 100 percent. 12. Pollution rights can be used to price the right to emit pollutants and to provide incentives to reduce emissions by profit-maximizing firms. 13. Emissions standards allow businesses to emit waste at zero cost until the limits set by the standards are reached. 14. The market for sulfur dioxide allowance trading has lowered the cost of achieving a given reduc­tion in sulfur dioxide emissions by electric power-generating plants. 15. Command-and-control regulation to reduce emissions is likely to be a less costly way of reducing a given amount of emissions than tradeable emissions permits. 16. When negative externalities exist, perfectly competitive markets produce less than the efficient output. 17. A toll road used to subsidize public transportation in an effort to reduce pollution is an example of a corrective tax. 18. Assuming no externalities and a competitive environment, the marginal private cost is equal to the marginal social cost. 19. Assuming a negative externality, the price of a good will be lower than if the price was set in a competitive environment without an externality. Multiple Choice Questions 1. A negative externality results from the sale of firewood in competitive markets. Then it follows that: a. the marginal private cost of firewood is less than its marginal social cost. b. the marginal private cost of firewood exceeds its marginal social cost. c. the marginal private benefit of firewood is less than its marginal social benefit. d. the marginal private benefit of firewood exceeds its marginal social benefit. 2. If a negative externality prevails in a competitive market for air travel, then: a. more than the efficient amount of annual air travel will be consumed in equilibrium. b. less than the efficient amount of annual air travel will be consumed in equilibrium. c. the marginal social cost of air travel will exceed its marginal social benefit in equilibrium. d. both (a) and (c) e. both (b) and (c) 3. A positive externality results from the purchase of smoke detectors. If smoke detectors are sold in a competitive market, a. the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors is less than the marginal private benefit received by any consumer. b. the marginal social benefit will exceed the marginal private benefit received by any consumer. c. in equilibrium the marginal social cost of smoke detectors will equal the marginal social benefit. d. in equilibrium the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors is zero. 4. The marginal external cost associated with air pollution increases with the annual output of a pollut­ing industry. At the current competitive equilibrium level of output per year, the marginal external cost is $10 per unit of output. To achieve efficiency, a. a corrective tax of $10 per unit of output is required. b. a corrective tax of more than $10 per unit of output is required. c. a corrective tax of less than $10 per unit of output is required. d. a corrective subsidy of $10 per unit of output is required. e. a corrective subsidy of less than $10 per unit of output is required . 5. The marginal external cost associated with paper production is constant at $10 per ton per year. The competitive market equilibrium for paper production is currently 10 million tons per year. A corrective tax on paper production: a. will collect $100 million annually. b. will collect more than $100 million annually. c. will collect less than $100 million annually. d. will reduce annual damages to those other than buyers and sellers of paper to zero. e. both (a) and (d) 6. The marginal external cost per unit of effluent discharged into a river by a perfectly competitive chemical industry is currently estimated to be $50 per ton per year. Which of the following state­ments is true? a. Efficiency can be achieved with a $50 per ton annual effluent charge. b. At the competitive equilibrium output, the marginal social benefit of discharging effluent is $50. c. Efficiency can be achieved by banning discharge of effluent. d. At the efficient output, the marginal social benefit of discharging effluent will be zero. 7. Electric power is produced by an unregulated monopoly in a certain region. The monopolistic elec­tric power company’s production of electricity results in $10 per kilowatt hour of pollution damage to parties other than the buyers of electricity in the region. To achieve efficiency, a. a $10 per kilowatt hour corrective tax is required. b. more than $10 per kilowatt hour corrective tax is required. c. a $10 corrective subsidy is required. d. less than $10 per kilowatt hour corrective tax is required. 8. The competitive market equilibrium price of sanitation services in a small town with no government-supplied sanitation services is $2 per trash pickup. There is a $1 marginal external benefit associated with each trash pickup. The elasticity of supply of trash pickups is infinite in the long run, implying a horizontal supply curve. To achieve the efficient output of sanitation services, a. a corrective subsidy must increase the price received by suppliers to $3 per pickup. b. a corrective subsidy must decrease the price paid by consumers of sanitation services to $1 per pickup. c. a corrective tax of $1 per pickup is required. d. a corrective subsidy must increase the price paid by buyers to $3 per pickup. 9. The current competitive market price of fish is $3 per pound. A chemical producer emits effluent into a lake used by a commercial fishing firm. Each ton of chemical output causes a 20-pound reduction in the annual catch of the fishing firm. Assuming that transactions costs are zero and the chemical firm has the legal right to dump effluent into the lake, a. the fishing firm would be willing to pay up to $60 per ton of chemicals per year to induce the chemical firm to reduce chemical output. b. the fishing firm would be willing to pay up to $3 per ton of chemicals per year to induce the chemical firm to reduce chemical output. c. the chemical firm would never consider the damage caused by its effluent. d. government intervention is required to achieve efficiency. 10. According to the Coase theorem, externalities can be internalized when transactions costs are zero through: a. corrective taxes and subsidies. b. effluent fees. c. assigning property rights to resource use but outlawing their exchange. d. assignment of property rights to use resources and allowing free exchange of assigned property rights. 11. Which of the following is true if a negative externality is associated with the sale of gasoline? a. Third parties other than the buyers and sellers of gasoline receive benefits. b. Third parties other than the buyers and sellers of gasoline bear costs. c. The marginal social cost of gasoline exceeds its marginal private cost. d. both (b) and (c) 12. If a positive externality prevails in the market for smoke detectors, then when the market is in equilibrium, a. the marginal social benefit of smoke detectors exceeds the marginal social cost. b. the marginal social cost of smoke detectors exceeds the marginal social benefit. c. the marginal social cost of smoke detectors is equal to the marginal social benefit. d. more than the efficient amount of smoke detectors is sold. 13. Regulations require that emissions of carbon monoxide be limited to 1,000 tons per 100 square miles for all regions of the nation. If the marginal external cost of the emissions varies among regions in the nation, then the regulations will: a. achieve the efficient amount of pollution abatement. b. achieve more than the efficient amount of pollution abatement. c. achieve less than the efficient amount of pollution abatement. d. be likely to achieve more than the efficient amount of abatement in some regions, but less than the efficient amount in others. 14. If the marginal costs of reducing emissions varies among regions, then regulations requiring all regions in a nation to reduce emissions by the same amount will achieve: a. the efficient amount of pollution abatement. b. more than the efficient amount of pollution abatement. c. less than the efficient amount of pollution abatement. d. more than the efficient amount of pollution abatement in some regions, but less than the efficient amount in other regions. 15. Which of the following is true about command-and-control regulation that allows businesses to emit pollutants up to a certain point and bans emissions after that limit is reached? a. They are equivalent to emissions charges. b. They make firms pay the marginal cost of the damages done by their emissions, no matter what the level. c. They allow firms to emit some pollutants at zero charge. d. They are likely to minimize the cost of achieving any given reduction in emissions. 16. Assuming a product can be manufactured competitively without any externalities at an efficient quantity of 1,000 units and an efficient price of $100.00 per unit, what efficient quantity-price combination would be consistent with a negative externality? a. 1,000 units, $95.00 per unit price. b. 950 units, $102.00 per unit price. c. 900 units, $90.00 per unit price. d. 1,100 units, $105 per unit price. 17. The effect of a negative externality is similar to: a. A supply curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left. b. A supply curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right. c. A demand curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left. d. A demand curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right. 18. Assuming a product can be manufactured competitively without any externalities at an efficient quantity of 1,500 units and an efficient price of $50.00 per unit, what efficient quantity-price combination would be consistent with a positive externality? a. 1,500 units, $60.00 per unit price. b. 1,300 units, $45.00 per unit price. c. 1,600 units, $40.00 per unit price. d. 1,700 units, $56.00 per unit price. 19. The effect of a positive externality is similar to: a. A supply curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left. b. A supply curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right. c. A demand curve (marginal social cost) shifting to the left. d. A demand curve (marginal social benefit) shifting to the right. 20. Assuming a product can be manufactured competitively without any externalities at an efficient quantity of 500 units and an efficient price of $150.00 per unit, what efficient quantity-price net subsidy combination would be consistent with a corrective subsidy for a positive externality? a. 500 units, $150.00 per unit price net subsidy. b. 300 units, $120.00 per unit price net subsidy. c. 600 units, $160.00 per unit price net subsidy. d. 700 units, $100.00 per unit price net subsidy.


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ECO 450 Week 11 Final Exam

ECO 450 Week 11 Final Exam | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ECO 450 Week 11 Final Exam (Many other Questions are also Included) 1. The Social Security pension system is a fully funded retirement plan. 2. Social Security pension benefits are transfers from workers to retirees. 3. Social Security pensions are financed by voluntary contributions by workers. 4. The gross replacement rate measures the ratio of taxes paid per year by workers to their annual Social Security pension when they retire. 5. In the year prior to retirement, a worker earned $20,000 and paid $5,000 in taxes on those earnings. His annual Social Security pension is $10,000 per year. Then it follows that his net replacement rate is 50 percent. 6. The gross replacement rate for Social Security pensions is the same for all workers independent of their preretirement earnings. 7. The annual growth in wages subject to Social Security taxes is 3 percent. Given the payroll tax rate, the growth in funds available to pay pension benefits is also 3 percent. 8. The asset-substitution effect of Social Security pensions discourages saving. 9. The availability of Social Security pensions to workers over normal retirement age results in an income effect unfavorable to work but no substitution effect. 10. The bequest effect of Social Security encourages workers to save less. 11. The normal retirement age for Social Security old-age pensions is 67 for people born in the United States in 1960 or later. 12. Workers in the United States can retire under Social Security at age 62 with lower pensions than they would receive at their normal retirement age. 13. As of 2009, retired workers between the ages of 62 and their normal retirement age were subject to an “earnings test” that reduced their pension by $1 for each $2 of earnings after a certain minimum level of earnings. 14. Reducing the replacement rate will have no effect on the tax rate necessary to finance pensions under a pay-as-you-go, tax-financed pension system. 15. Workers who quit their jobs are eligible for unemployment insurance benefits in the United States. 16. By 2050, the expected percentage of the U.S. population that is considered elderly will be less than 20%. 17. Social Security was created in 1965. 18. On average, the elderly are less likely to be poor when compared to the rest of the U.S. population. Multiple Choice Questions 1. The Social Security retirement system: a. is a fully funded pension system. b. is a tax-financed system that pays benefits from taxes that are invested to return principal and interest to workers when they retire. c. is a tax-financed retirement system that finances pensions by taxing workers each year and transferring the bulk of revenues obtained directly to retirees. d. does not use taxes on workers to pay pensions to retirees. 2. The gross replacement rate: a. measures a worker’s monthly retirement benefit divided by monthly earnings before taxes in the year prior to retirement. b. measures a worker’s monthly retirement benefit divided by monthly earnings after taxes in the year prior to retirement. c. is an increasing function of gross monthly earnings prior to retirement. d. is independent of gross monthly earnings prior to retirement. 3. A worker earns $2,000 per month before taxes. He pays $140 per month payroll tax on those wages. In addition, the income taxes on those wages are $360 per month. On retirement, the worker receives a Social Security pension of $750 per month. Which of the following statements is true? a. The worker’s gross replacement rate is 50 percent. b. The worker’s net replacement rate is 50 percent. c. The worker’s net replacement rate is 38 percent. d. The worker’s net replacement rate is 75 percent. 4. The growth in hourly wages over the past 50 years has averaged about 2 percent per year. How­ever, the growth in Social Security pensions has far exceeded this 2-percent rate. The growth in tax revenue to finance Social Security benefits in excess of 2 percent per year can be accounted for by: a. increases in payroll tax rates. b. use of other taxes beside the payroll tax to pay Social Security benefits. c. an increase in the number of workers paying Social Security taxes. d. either (a) or (b) e. either (a) or (c) 5. Given the structure and level of gross replacement rates and the expected future growth of labor earnings subject to the payroll tax, the tax rates used to tax payrolls were increased in the 1980s because: a. the number of retirees per worker will increase. b. the number of retirees per worker will decrease. c. wages are expected to decline. d. the size of the work force is expected to increase. 6. Which of the following is likely to increase the net federal debt as a share of GDP? a. a federal budget surplus. b. a federal budget deficit. c. a recession. d. either b or c. 7. The asset-substitution effect of the Social Security retirement system leads all workers to: a. save more for retirement. b. save less for retirement. c. save absolutely nothing for retirement. d. work more 8. Which of the following is a consequence of a growing federal budget deficit in the United States? a. A decrease in the federal debt outstanding. b. An increase in the federal debt outstanding. c. A decrease in the portion share of federal government expenditures that must be allocated to interest in the future. d. An increase in national saving. 9. The induced-retirement effect of the Social Security pension system induces workers to: a. save less for retirement. b. save more for retirement. c. reduce savings for retirement to zero. d. work more after retirement. 10. Unemployment insurance benefits are: a. financed by payroll taxes levied on workers. b. financed by payroll taxes levied on employers. c. both (a) and (b) d. financed by sales taxes. 11. Which of the following is true about the Social Security pension system in the United States? a. Pensions received by retired workers are based entirely on their contributions to the Social Security pension trust fund and the investment return on that fund. b. Pensions received by married retirees with dependents are greater than that received by those without dependents. c. Gross replacement rates are inversely related to preretirement earnings. d. both (b) and (c) 12. Which of the following can decrease tax rates necessary to pay pensions for a pay-as-you-go pension system? a. an increase in replacement rates b. a decrease in the retirement age c. an increase in the size of the work force d. an increase in the number of retirees 13. Unless legislation is introduced to change the normal retirement age, people born in 1960 or later will be able to retire with full Social Security benefits at age: a. 62. b. 65. c. 66. d. 67. 14. The earnings test for retirees: a. increases their incentive to work. b. is applied to all retirees. c. is applied only to retirees below normal retirement age. d. reduces pension benefits by $1 for each $2 of earnings. e. both (c) and (d) 15. A nation has 40 million current retirees and a work force of 100 million. Which of the following is true? a. The replacement rate is 40 percent. b. The replacement is 2.5. c. The dependency ratio is 0.4. d. The dependency ratio is 2.5. 16. Social Security tax rates can be reduced if: a. taxable wages decline. b. the retirement age is lowered. c. the retirement age is raised. d. the work force decreases in size. 17. A retiree subject to the earnings test under Social Security: a. can earn as much as he or she chooses without losing Social Security pension benefits. b. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced by one dollar for each dollar of labor earnings. c. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced immediately by one dollar for each three dollars of labor earnings. d. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced by one dollar for each two dollars of earnings after a certain minimum amount per year. 18. A pay-as-you-go social security retirement system is: a. exemplified by the current U.S. social security system. b. exemplified by the current Chilean social security system. c. designed to have retirees set aside a contribution specifically for themselves during their earlier working life. d. both (a) and (b). 19. Approximately, what percentage of beneficiaries of U.S. Social Security are retired workers? a. 50% b. 60% c. 70% d. 80% 20. The Social Security Act was implemented in the United States in: a. 1927. b. 1935. c. 1947. d. 1965. True/False Questions 1. In the United States the government pays the health bills of 90 percent of the population. 2. The American system of health care is financed by a mix of private and government insurance programs that pay over 80 percent of the health care bills for U.S. citizens. 3. Spending per person on health care in the United States is less than in the United Kingdom where national health insurance finances health expenditures. 4. Government spending on health care is declining as a percent of total government spending. 5. Medicare is a government program of health insurance for the elderly. 6. Exclusion of employer-provided health insurance to employees is an indirect subsidy to private provision of health insurance. 7. Third-party payments for health care services increase the quantity of health care demanded by reducing out-of-pocket costs to patients. 8. An increase in coinsurance and deductibles for health insurance can contribute to a reduction in expenditures on health care. 9. Half of Americans do not have health insurance coverage. 10. Under national health insurance in Great Britain, the price system is used to ration health care. 11. Approximately 16 percent of GDP was allocated to provision of health care in the United States as of 2006. 12. Individuals in the United States, on average, pay 50 percent of their health care costs out-of-pocket, and the remaining 50 percent is paid by insurance, governments, and charity. 13. Asymmetric information in the market for health care occurs when sellers of medical care are better informed about cost and quality of care than buyers. 14. Because of third-party payment for services in the market for health care, the price paid by buyers is less than the payment sellers receive, and the marginal social cost of health care exceeds its mar­ginal social benefit. 15. Medicaid costs are paid entirely by the federal government. 16. Healthcare expenditures in the U.S. are projected to be 20% of GDP by 2017. 17. Asymmetric information can occur when the provider of a service is better informed than the consumer of the service. 18. A risk averse individual prefers to pay certain modest costs in exchange for possible unforeseen high costs. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Most of the medical bills of Americans in the United States are paid by: a. the patients. b. private and government health insurance. c. charities. d. Medicaid. 2. Since 1960, expenditures on health care as a percent of GDP has: a. been cut in half. b. nearly tripled. c. remained the same. d. doubled. 3. The government program that provides the health insurance to the poor in the United States is called: a. national health insurance. b. Medicare. c. Medicaid. d. employer-provided health insurance. 4. Which of the following programs accounts for the greatest amount of government expenditures on public health in the United States? a. Medicare b. worker’s compensation c. the Public Health Service d. medical research 5. Which of the following subsidizes private provision of health insurance? a. Medicare b. Medicaid c. the Public Health Service d. tax exclusion of the value of employer-provided health insurance to workers 6. Which of the following could help decrease the rate of increase of spending on health care in the United States? a. a reduction in the deductibles on private health insurance policies b. an increase in the coinsurance rate on health insurance and subjecting a larger volume of ser­vices to coinsurance c. extension of Medicaid insurance to all persons who are poor d. a reduction in the coinsurance rate on health insurance and subjecting a smaller volume of ser­vices to coinsurance 7. Which of the following is an example of the “moral hazard of health insurance”? a. an increase in the number of surgeries prescribed for benign prostate disease beyond the point at which the marginal benefit equals the marginal cost b. a decreased willingness of individuals to go to the doctor for minor ailments because of increases in coinsurance rates c. an underallocation of resources to medical care because of monopoly power of hospitals d. experience rating of health insurance groups by health insurers 8. A third-party payment system for health care: a. results because of externalities in the production of health care services. b. encourages more than the efficient amount of resources to be allocated to health care. c. encourages patients and health care providers to economize on the use of health care resources. d. means that patients pay the full price for health care services they consume. 9. Which of the following services is typically not covered under private health insurance and Medicare in the United States? a. treatment for heart attack b. surgery c. office visits to physicians d. long-term care services 10. Under national health insurance as operated in Great Britain, a. the British system pays fees equal to half of the costs of services provided to them. b. general practice physicians are paid on a per-patient rather than on a per-unit-of-service basis. c. patients requiring surgery can pick their surgeons and can usually obtain the surgery in a matter of days, even if it is not an emergency. d. there are no government limits on health care spending by hospitals. 11. Which of the following is true about the Medicaid program in the United States? a. It is a program of health insurance for the elderly. b. Its costs are paid entirely by the federal government. c. It is a program of health insurance for the poor. d. Its costs have been declining in recent years. 12. In the United States, individuals pay approximately what percent of the cost of their medical care directly to providers? a. 100 percent b. 50 percent c. 15 percent d. zero 13. The percent of total health care costs in the United States paid for by governments is approximately: a. 90 percent. b. 45 percent. c. 25 percent. d. 10 percent. 14. The system of third-party payment for medical care in the United States has which of the following effects in the market for health care? a. It improves efficiency in the market. b. It causes the marginal social benefit of health care to exceed its marginal social cost. c. It causes the marginal social cost of health care to exceed its marginal social benefit. d. It results in less than the efficient quantity of health care services. 15. Which of the following is true about the Medicare program in the United States? a. It is only available to those who pass a means test. b. It is available to all citizens over the age of 65. c. The costs are completely financed by fees paid by insurees. d. It places no limits on reimbursement to medical care providers. 16. What would be the effect of having no health insurance available? a. The quantity of healthcare would be set at where the marginal benefit and marginal cost are equal. b. Excess demand for healthcare would be the result because the quantity supplied would be at a level where the marginal benefit exceeds the marginal cost. c. Excess supply for healthcare would be the result because the quantity supplied would be at a level where the marginal benefit would be below the marginal cost. d. the quantity of healthcare would be at an inefficient level. 17. The elderly are what proportion of beneficiaries of Medicare? a. 95% b. 85% c. 77% d. 70% 18. What is the moral hazard associated with third party payment for health services? a. The recipient of the service is not as informed as the provider of the service. b. The recipient of services tends to decline more services than they should. c. The recipient of services tends to have more services than what is needed relative to the efficient level of services. d. There is no moral hazard. 19. Which is not reason for excalating healthcare costs in the U.S.? a. Increase in malpractice insurance. b. Cross-subsidization of patients who cannot pay for healthcare or insurance. c. Overuse of new technology. d. Both (b) and (c). 20. If the quantity of healthcare is more than the efficient quantity, what is the consequence? a. Some will not have access to healthcare that would have access at the efficient level. b. The healthcare will suffer in quality. c. Capital could be more efficiently spent elsewhere leading to less overall productivity. d. Lower marginal costs and marginal benefits. True/False Questions 1. Taxes simultaneously ration and finance government goods and services. 2. The federal government finances only half of its expenditures with taxes. 3. The benefit principle argues that the means of financing government goods and services should be linked to the benefits received from those goods and services. 4. Horizontal equity is achieved when individuals of the same economic capacity pay the same amount of taxes over a given period. 5. A flat-rate income tax is a proportional tax on an income base. 6. The marginal tax rate will eventually exceed the average tax rate if the tax rate structure is propor­tional. 7. The marginal tax rate for a payroll tax is 7 percent on all wages up to $60,000 per year. The marginal tax rate for wages in excess of $60,000 per year is zero. The payroll tax is therefore a regressive tax. 8. Tax evasion would be less of a problem if tax rates were lowered. 9. The user charge for a congestible public good should be zero at all times. 10. Zero prices for price-excludable government services provide benefits only to the poor. 11. The gasoline tax is an example of a general tax on consumption. 12. For a proportional tax, the marginal tax rate is always equal to the average tax rate. 13. Tax avoidance is an illegal activity in the United States. 14. An increase in marginal tax rates is likely to increase tax evasion. 15. Most studies indicate that state-run lotteries are equivalent to a progressive tax on gambling. 16. Government activity requires the reallocation of resources from government to private use. 17. A flat income tax (i.e. a fixed amount paid by every taxpayer) is an example of a selective tax. 18. The average tax rate and marginal tax rate are the same under a progressive tax rate structure. Multiple Choice Questions 1. According to the benefit principle, a. taxes should be distributed according to ability to pay. b. user charges are an ideal source of finance for government goods and services. c. the progressive income tax represents the ideal way of distributing taxes among citizens. d. flat-rate taxes are always the best kind. 2. If horizontal equity is achieved in taxation, a. vertical equity will also be achieved. b. individuals of equal economic capacity will pay equal taxes. c. a flat-rate tax will be used. d. the tax system will not result in losses in efficiency in markets. 3. The tax base of a payroll tax is: a. consumer expenditures. b. interest income. c. labor income. d. both (b) and (c) 4. A 5-percent retail sales tax on all consumer purchases in a state is imposed. The sales tax is: a. a flat-rate tax. b. a tax with a regressive rate structure. c. levied on an income base. d. all of the above 5. A tax on the value of real estate holdings is a: a. selective tax on wealth. b. general tax on wealth. c. general tax on income. d. selective tax on income. 6. An excise tax is a: a. general consumption tax. b. selective consumption tax. c. general wealth tax. d. selective tax on wealth. 7. A proportional income tax has an average tax rate that: a. always is less than the marginal tax rate. b. always exceeds the marginal tax rate. c. equals the marginal tax rate at first and then becomes less than the marginal tax rate. d. always equals the marginal tax rate. 8. A payroll tax taxes a worker’s wages at 14 percent until the worker earns $60,000 per year. All labor earnings in excess of $60,000 are not subject to tax. The tax rate structure of the payroll tax is therefore: a. proportional. b. progressive. c. regressive. d. flat-rate. 9. A bridge becomes congested after 100 vehicles per hour use it on any day. To achieve efficiency, a toll: a. that charges all users of the bridge, no matter how many vehicles use it per hour, should be imposed. b. on additional users in excess of 100 per hour should be imposed. c. on all users should be imposed, if more than 100 users per hour are expected. d. is not required. 10. A government prints money to finance its expenditures. As a result, a. the economy can operate at a point outside its production possibility curve. b. inflation will occur. c. consumers will give up private goods to finance the increased government expenditures. d. both (b) and (c) 11. Taxes are likely to affect: a. market equilibrium. b. political equilibrium. c. the distribution of income. d. all of the above 12. Taxes: a. are voluntary payments to governments. b. are unlikely to affect market supply and demand. c. never affect efficiency in the allocation of resources. d. are compulsory payments associated with certain activities. 13. A tax on real estate is a: a. general wealth tax. b. general consumption tax. c. selective wealth tax. d. selective income tax. 14. The marginal tax rate will eventually exceed the average tax rate for a: a. proportional tax. b. regressive tax. c. progressive tax. d. flat-rate tax. 15. Marginal tax rates were reduced in 2001. Other things being equal, this is likely to: a. increase tax evasion. b. decrease tax evasion. c. have no effect on tax evasion. d. increase tax avoidance. 16. What is an example of a normative criterion that a government must trade-off in its method of taxation? a. Equity b. Efficiency c. Administrative ease d. all of the above 17. Tax avoidance is: a. a means of tax evasion. b. a means of decreasing taxes paid by adjusting behavior. c. a political process explicitly for the reduction of taxation. d. a means to avoid tax owed. 18. If the marginal tax rate is 20% under a proportional tax rate structure, the average tax rate: a. should be 20%. b. should be above 20%. c. should be below 20%. d. cannot be determined. 19. If the average tax rate under a progressive tax rate structure is 35%, a possible marginal tax rate is: a. 30%. b. 25%. c. 42%. d. not able to be determined. 20. Which of the following countries has the highest average tax rate relative to GDP? a. Japan b. Sweden c. Iceland d. United Kingdom True/False Questions 1. A lump-sum tax results in both income and substitution effects. 2. A consumer currently pays $500 a year retail sales taxes. She would be better off if she paid the same amount annually as a lump-sum tax. 3. Clothing is sold in perfectly competitive markets where no externalities prevail. An excise tax on clothing will result in a market price for clothing that equals the marginal social benefit and mar­ginal social cost of service. 4. Assuming that the income effects are negligible and that beer is sold in a competitive market, a 10‑cent per can tax on beer that causes a 10,000 can per month decline in sales will result in an excess burden of $1,000 per month. 5. A tax on land results in an income effect on landlords but no substitution effect. Then it follows that the excess burden of a tax on land will be zero. 6. The excess burden of a tax on interest income is $5 billion per year. Total interest income per year is $50 billion. The tax currently collects $15 billion in revenue per year. The efficiency-loss ratio of the tax is therefore 0.33. 7. A payroll tax results in a difference between the gross wages paid by employers and the net wages received by workers. 8. If the market supply of labor services is perfectly inelastic, a tax on labor income will reduce the net wages received by workers by the full amount of the tax per labor hour. 9. If a $10 per unit tax is levied on the output of a monopolist, more of that tax will be shifted to con­sumers than would be the case if the same good were produced by a competitive industry. 10. A study indicates that taxes in the United States reduce the Gini coefficient for the nation by 10 percent. This implies that taxes make the income distribution more equal. 11. A lump-sum tax only results in income effects. 12. An income tax is an example of a price-distorting tax. 13. The more price-elastic the demand of a taxed item, the lower the excess burden of a tax on the sale of that item. 14. If the tax on the sale of gasoline is doubled from 20 cents per gallon to 40 cents per gallon, the excess burden of the tax will quadruple. 15. If the compensated elasticity of supply of labor is zero, then a tax on labor earnings will have zero excess burden. 16. Lump-sum taxes do not prevent prices from equaling the marginal social cost and benefit of any goods and services. 17. Lump-sum taxes can vary in amount based on income level. 18. A lump-sum tax can distort prices and affect consumption behavior. Multiple Choice Questions 1. A lump-sum tax: a. distorts market prices so that they do not simultaneously equal MSB and MSC. b. can result in price changes but does not prevent prices from simultaneously being equal to MSB and MSC. c. results in substitution effects that change prices. d. results in both substitution effects and income effects that change prices. 2. The current price of compact discs, which are traded in perfectly competitive markets, is $10. A $1 per unit tax is levied on the discs. Annual record sales decline from five million to four million as a result of the tax. Assuming that the income effect of the tax-induced price change is negligible, the excess burden of the tax will be: a. $500,000 per year. b. $1 million per year. c. $2 million per year. d. $2.5 million per year. 3. The elasticity of supply of land is zero. A tax on land results only in an income effect to landlords. Then it follows that a 10-percent tax on land rents will: a. have a positive excess burden. b. be shifted forward to tenants. c. be paid entirely by landlords. d. have zero excess burden. e. both (c) and (d) 4. Currently, a 10-cent per gallon tax is levied on gasoline consumption. The tax is increased to 20 cents per gallon. The excess burden of the tax will: a. remain the same. b. double. c. increase four times. d. decline. 5. The supply of new cars is perfectly elastic. A $400 per car tax is levied on buyers. As a result of the tax, a. the price received by sellers will fall by $400. b. the price paid by buyers, including the tax, will increase by $400. c. the quantity of cars sold per year will be unchanged. d. the excess burden of the tax will be zero. e. both (c) and (d) 6. Other things being equal, the more inelastic the demand for a taxed good, a. the greater the portion of the tax paid by sellers. b. the greater the excess burden of the tax. c. the greater the portion of the tax paid by buyers. d. the less the portion of a tax on sellers that can be shifted to buyers. 7. The market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. However, the income effect of tax-induced wage changes are believed to be substantial. Then it follows that a tax on labor income will: a. have zero excess burden. b. have positive excess burden. c. be paid entirely by workers as a reduction in net wages. d. both (a) and (c) e. both (b) and (c) 8. Suppose an economy is comprised of only two markets: one for food and the other for housing. A tax on food used to finance transfer payments is likely to: a. decrease the price of food. b. increase the price of housing. c. decrease the price of housing. d. have no effect on either the price of food or housing. 9. Differential tax incidence measures the effect: a. that a tax and the expenditures it finances have on the distribution of income. b. that one tax alone has on the distribution of income. c. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while holding the size and composition of the budget fixed. d. on the distribution of income of substituting one tax for another while changing the kinds of government services financed. 10. Most studies of tax incidence assume that taxes on labor income and other input services are borne entirely by the workers and other input owners that supply the services. This implies that the: a. supply of those input services is very elastic. b. supply of those input services is of unitary elasticity. c. supply of those input services is perfectly inelastic. d. demand for those input services is perfectly elastic. 11. Most studies show that the price elasticity of demand for gasoline is –0.2. If the price elasticity of supply is 2, then a tax on gasoline will: a. have no effect on the market equilibrium price of gasoline. b. cause the market equilibrium price of gasoline to fall. c. cause the market equilibrium price paid by buyers to rise. d. cause the net price received by sellers to fall. e. both (c) and (d) 12. The demand for medical care is very inelastic. If a 10-percent tax is levied Information About Us Custom Help Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions Customer Service Contact Us Returns Extr

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HUM 115 Week 5 Critical Thinking Reflection

HUM 115 Week 5 Critical Thinking Reflection | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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HUM 115 Week 5 Critical Thinking Reflection 
Write a 500-word paper about how critical thinking can be used in everyday life. Include the following in your paper: 
Identify three lessons that you learned from this course. 
Describe each of them and explain why they are meaningful to you. 
How will each of these lessons apply to your everyday life? 
What will you continue to work on as a critical thinker? 
What is still a challenge to you as a critical thinker? 
Format all sources consistent with APA standards. Include an APA title page. 
Use complete sentences, with correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. Use Writepoint or a peer reviewer to edit and recise your paper. 
Submit your answers in the Assignment Files tab above. 


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HUM 115 Week 3 Points of View

HUM 115 Week 3 Points of View | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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HUM 115 Week 3 Points of View
Complete the following three-part assignment in a Microsoft® Word document. 
Points of View 
Step 1: 
Choose a topic from the Opposing Viewpoints website accessed in the CWE. You can access the Opposing Viewpoints in Context database by going to the University Library, selecting Specialized Resources, and then clicking on Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Here is a screencast showing you around Opposing Viewpoints. Check it out: 
 http://www.screencast.com/t/3i59wFMJ5Oi Choose a topic that can be argued. This is called a persuasive topic. (For example: An old house is much better than a new house because of 1, 2, 3 and 4... With this topic you have chosen a side to argue - an old house is better! ) Opposing Viewpoints has many persuasive topics to choose from. 
Choose something you would like to know more about - it will make this assignment more interesting! (Note: I do not accept any topics on religion or abortion.) 
Step 2: Paragraph #1 (at least 100 words): Without reading any literature on your chosen topic, answer these questions: Summarize the issue 
Give your opinion on the issue/topic 
Step #3: Paragraphs #2-5 Locate two articles on your chosen topic, one for and one against the topic chosen (for example - they must be about opposing views on your topic.) and discuss the following, in at least 100 words per article (one-two paragraphs per article): 
Is the information contained in the articles reliable? Are the authors credible or non-credible? Please explain. 
Has your opinion changed after reading the articles? Explain your answer. Can you accept the other side, even if you have not changed your mind about your stance? Why or why not? How has this enhnaced your critical thinking? 
Use correct grammar, punctuation and spelling. Use Writepoint or a peer reviewer to help with editing and revising. 
Use at least one paragraph per article. 
Cite your references. 
Use an APA title page. 
 Submit your answers in the Assignment Files tab above.


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HUM 115 Week 1 Critical Thinking Levels and Steps of Critical Thinking Worksheet

HUM 115 Week 1 Critical Thinking Levels and Steps of Critical Thinking Worksheet | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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HUM 115 Week 1 Critical Thinking Levels and Steps of Critical Thinking Worksheet 
 Complete the Levels and Steps of Critical Thinking Worksheet. Submit your completed assignment in the Assignment Files tab above.


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ACCT 224 Week 7 Assignment

ACCT 224 Week 7 Assignment | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ACCT 224 Week 7 Assignment

 Please complete the below problems and submit your answers in the Week 7 Drop Box. See “Syllabus/Due Dates for Assignments & Exams” for due date information. 

 1. What is MACRS? In your explanation, please describe the recovery periods, depreciation methods and depreciation conventions. 

 2.What is the difference between a recognized gain/loss and a realized gain/loss?


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ACCT 224 Week 5 Homework Assignment

ACCT 224 Week 5 Homework Assignment | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ACCT 224 Week 5 Homework Assignment 

 Please complete the below problems and submit your answers in the Week 5 Drop Box. See “Syllabus/Due Dates for Assignments & Exams” for due date information. 

 1.How do you determine the filing date and extended filing date for income tax returns? 

 2.How do you compute the late-filing and late-payment penalty? 

3.Describe the statute of limitations for a tax return?


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ACCT 224 Week 3 Homework Assignment

ACCT 224 Week 3 Homework Assignment | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ACCT 224 Week 3 Homework Assignment 
Please complete the below problems and submit your answers in the Week 3 Drop Box. See “Syllabus/Due Dates for Assignments & Exams” for due date information. 

 1.Compare and contrast being an employee and an independent contractor. Which one would you rather have as a business 
owner? Which one would you rather be as a worker? Why?

 2.What is the passive activity loss limitation? Are rental activities passive activities? Why or why not?


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ACCT 224 Week 1 You Decide Assignment

ACCT 224 Week 1 You Decide Assignment | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ACCT 224 Week 1 You Decide Assignment


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ECO 450 Week 9 Quiz 7 Ch 13 and 14

ECO 450 Week 9 Quiz 7 Ch 13 and 14 | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ECO 450 Week 9 Quiz 7 Ch 13 and 14 1. The actual federal income tax currently taxes all income irrespective of its source or use at the same tax rate. 2. Comprehensive income excludes unrealized capital gains. 3. Under a comprehensive income tax, transfer payments received by Social Security recipients would be fully taxable. 4. Homeowners earn rental income-in-kind from their home that would be taxable under a compre­hensive income tax. 5. A comprehensive income tax is a lump-sum tax. 6. A comprehensive income tax will result in a divergence between gross wages paid by employers and net wages received by workers. 7. A comprehensive income tax will always reduce work effort by taxpayers. 8. The substitution effect of a tax-induced decline in wages always leads workers to work less. 9. The market wage elasticity of labor is zero. If this is the case, the excess burden of a tax on labor income will also be zero. 10. Points on a compensated labor supply curve are always more elastic than points for corresponding wage levels on a regular labor supply curve. 11. Comprehensive income is the sum of annual consumption and the change in net worth. 12. A tax on interest income does not prevent credit market from efficiently allocating resources. 13. If an individual is subject to a 30-percent income tax, then the net interest on a certificate of deposit yielding 5 percent would be 3.5 percent after taxes. 14. Because a tax on interest income results in income and substitution effects, it is not possible to pre­dict the effect it will have on saving. 15. Most empirical studies indicate that the interest elasticity of supply of savings is close to zero. 16. Income tax became a permanent fixture in the United States starting in the early nineteenth century. 17. The Haig-Simons definition of income is different from comprehensive income. 18. Comprehensive income equals consumption plus the change in net worth. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Comprehensive income: a. is the sum of annual consumption and realized capital gains. b. is the sum of annual consumption and changes in net worth. c. excludes corporation income. d. is the sum of annual consumption and net worth. 2. A tax on labor income: a. results only in an income effect that always decreases hours worked per year. b. results in a substitution effect that always decreases hours worked per year. c. results in an income effect that increases hours worked per year if leisure is a normal good. d. both (a) and (b) e. both (b) and (c) 3. The market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. Then it follows that: a. the substitution effect of wage changes is zero. b. the income effect of wage changes is zero. c. leisure is a normal good and the income effect of wage changes exactly offsets the substitution effect. d. the excess burden of a tax on labor income will be zero. 4. The compensated labor supply curve: a. will always be vertical. b. will always be upward sloping. c. will always be downward sloping. d. reflects both the income and substitution effects of wage changes. 5. Using a regular labor supply curve instead of a compensated supply curve to calculate the excess burden of a tax on labor income will: a. result in an accurate estimate of the excess burden. b. overestimate the excess burden. c. underestimate the excess burden. d. accurately estimate the excess burden only if the market supply of labor is perfectly inelastic. 6. Most empirical research indicates that the market supply curve of labor hours by prime-age males is: a. very elastic. b. almost perfectly inelastic. c. always upward sloping. d. perfectly elastic. 7. A flat-rate tax on labor income will: a. always reduce hours worked per year. b. always increase hours worked per year. c. either increase or decrease hours worked per year. d. never have any effect on the amount of leisure hours per year. 8. A tax on interest income: a. causes the gross interest rate paid by investors to exceed the net interest rate received by savers. b. will always reduce saving. c. will always increase saving. d. is equivalent to a lump-sum tax. 9. If the market supply curve of savings is upward sloping, a tax on interest income will: a. increase the amount of saving. b. increase the market rate of interest. c. decrease the market rate of interest. d. have no effect on the market rate of interest. 10. If the supply of labor is perfectly inelastic, then the incidence of a payroll tax levied entirely on employers will be: a. borne by employers as a reduction in profits. b. split between workers and employers. c. paid entirely by workers. d. shifted forward to consumers. 11. Which of the following is true about comprehensive income? a. Only labor income is included. b. Only capital income is included. c. Capital gains are not included. d. Both realized and unrealized capital gains are included. 12. Which of the following will increase a person’s comprehensive income? a. an increase in the market value of the person’s home b. a decrease in the value of the person’s stock portfolio c. a decrease in labor income d. a decrease in consumption 13. A tax on labor income will: a. increase the net wage received by workers. b. decrease the net wage received by workers. c. cause that net wage received by workers to decline below the gross wage paid by employers. d. both (b) and (c) 14. If the return to savings, r, is subject to taxation at rate t, then in equilibrium a saver’s marginal rate of time preference will equal: a. r b. t c. (1 + r) d. [1 + r(1 – t)] 15. The higher the compensated elasticity of supply of savings, a. the lower the excess burden of a tax on capital income. b. the higher the excess burden of a tax on capital income. c. the higher the excess burden of a tax on labor income. d. both (b) and (c) 16. The Haig-Simons definition of income: a. is the sum of annual consumption and realized capital gains. b. is the sum of annual consumption and changes in net worth. c. excludes corporation income. d. is the sum of annual consumption and net worth. 17 Comprehensive income: a. includes realized capital gains, but not unrealized capital gains b. includes both realized and unrealized capital gains. c. excludes cash from the sale of assets. d. excludes increases in the value of assets. 18. Income-in-kind: a. is exemplified by nonpecuniary returns. b. is generally non-taxable because there is no monetary transaction. c. is generally taxable. d. both (a) and (b). 19. An example of a nonpecuniary return is: a. job satisfaction. b. unemployment benefits. c. employer contributions to a retirement plan. d. both (b) and (c). 20. Income from labor services (wages) account for what percentage of gross income in the U.S.? a. 90% b. 75% c. 60% d. 50% True/False Questions 1. Taxable income in the United States exceeds adjusted gross income. 2. Taxable income in the United States includes all capital gains earned, whether or not they are realized. 3. Taxable income in the United States amounts to less than 50 percent of personal income. 4. Tax preferences are really subsidies to certain activities. 5. A tax deduction allowed for an activity for which positive externalities are not likely to exist (such as home ownership) is likely to cause the marginal social cost of the activity to exceed its marginal social benefit. 6. The value of a personal exemption to a taxpayer varies with his or her marginal tax rate. 7. The U.S. personal income tax is not a progressive tax. 8. The highest statutory marginal tax rate under the federal personal income tax is 50 percent. 9. Under current rules, only real interest earned is subject to income tax. 10. Realized, long-term capital gains that reflect inflation are currently exempt from taxation. 11. The tax base under the personal income tax in the United States is the Haig-Simons definition of comprehensive income. 12. Tax credits vary with a person’s marginal tax rate. 13. The cuts in marginal tax rates initiated in 2001 are likely to reduce the excess burden of tax pref­erences. 14. The earned income tax credit is a negative tax the subsidizes the earnings of low-income workers. 15. If a progressive income tax is replaced with an equal-yield, flat-rate tax, then work effort will unequivocally increase. 16. As of 2009, there is no marriage penalty for an adjusted gross income of $60,000. 17. Tax preferences are exclusions, exemptions, and deductions from the tax base. 18. Income-in-kind is not considered a tax preference. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Adjusted gross income, as defined by the United States Tax Code, a. exceeds taxable income. b. equals taxable income. c. is less than taxable income. d. is greater than comprehensive income. 2. Tax preferences: a. are exclusions, exemptions, and deductions from the tax base. b. are in the tax code by accident. c. are extra taxes on certain taxpayers. d. increase the amount of income that is taxable. e. both (a) and (d) 3. Currently, the tax treatment of capital gains in the United States is such that: a. all capital gains are taxed. b. all realized capital gains are taxed. c. most realized capital gains are taxed. d. only capital gains adjusted for inflation are taxed. 4. The exclusion of interest of state and local bonds from taxation by the federal government: a. decreases interest costs for state and local governments. b. increases interest costs for state and local governments. c. benefits lower-income taxpayers more than upper-income taxpayers. d. discourages borrowing by local governments. 5. The value of personal exemptions in terms of taxes saved: a. is the same for all taxpayers. b. varies with family size. c. varies with taxpayers’ marginal tax rates. d. both (b) and (c) 6. A taxpayer is in a 33-percent tax bracket and itemizes deductions. He obtains a mortgage from a bank at 9-percent interest. The actual rate of interest he pays is: a. 6 percent. b. 9 percent. c. 20 percent. d. 25 percent. 7. Tax expenditures are: a. expenditures made to collect taxes. b. losses in revenue due to tax preferences. c. less than 1 percent of tax revenue. d. both (b) and (c) 8. Under the federal personal income tax rules prevailing as of 2009, a. all interest expense is tax deductible. b. the interest expense for mortgages on first and second homes is tax deductible. c. the interest expense for mortgages only on first homes is tax deductible. d. no interest is tax deductible. 9. The reduction in marginal tax rates will: a. increase the excess burden of tax preferences. b. increase tax expenditures. c. decrease the excess burden of tax preferences. d. have no effect of tax expenditures. 10. “Bracket creep” is no longer a problem in the United States because: a. the tax brackets are indexed. b. capital gains are now fully taxable. c. only real interest is taxed. d. capital gains are indexed. 11. Which of the following is true for the federal income tax in the United States? a. All income irrespective of its source or use is taxed at the same rate. b. Comprehensive income is the tax base. c. The tax base is less than 50 percent of comprehensive income. d. All realized and unrealized capital gains are included in the tax base. 12. Because of the Earned Income Tax Credit, the effective tax rate for the lowest-income taxpayers in the United States is: a. only 15 percent. b. higher than that paid by upper-income taxpayers. c. zero. d. negative. 13. The excess burden of tax preferences: a. depends on average tax rates. b. will be higher, the higher the marginal tax rate is. c. will be lower, the higher the marginal tax rate is. d. is independent of marginal tax rates. 14. A shift to an equal-yield, flat-rate personal income tax from the current progressive income tax rate structure will: a. reduce the tax burden on upper-income groups. b. increase the tax burden on upper-income groups. c. increase the share of taxes paid by lower-income groups. d. both (a) and (c) 15. Removing savings from the tax base of the personal income tax is likely to: a. increase work effort. b. decrease work effort. c. lower market equilibrium interest rates by increasing the supply of loanable funds. d. increase market equilibrium interest rates, thereby increasing the demand for loanable funds. 16. Which is a justification for tax preferences? a. administrative difficulties b. improving equity c. encouraging private expenditures that create external benefits d. all of the above 17. If the excess burden from tax is $10 million, lowering marginal tax rates should make the excess burden: a. more than $10 million. b. less than $10 million. c. remain at $10 million. d. none of the above is certain to occur 18. Which of the following is the result of The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act enacted in 2001? a. reduction of the highest marginal tax rate b. increased the marriage penalty c. created a new 40% tax bracket d. both (a) and (c) 19. As of 2009, the highest marginal tax rate is: a. 39.6% b. 38% c. 35% d. 32.5% 20. Which is an example of an itemized deduction under the U.S. code as of 2009? a. state and local income tax b. state and local property tax c. all medical expenses d. both (a) and (b)


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ECO 450 Week 8 Assignment 2 The Value Added Tax Is It Good for the United States

ECO 450 Week 8 Assignment 2 The Value Added Tax Is It Good for the United States | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ECO 450 Week 8 Assignment 2 The Value Added Tax Is It Good for the United States


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ECO 450 Week 6 Quiz 4 Ch 8 and 9

ECO 450 Week 6 Quiz 4 Ch 8 and 9 | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ECO 450 Week 6 Quiz 4 Ch 8 and 9 1. The Social Security pension system is a fully funded retirement plan. 2. Social Security pension benefits are transfers from workers to retirees. 3. Social Security pensions are financed by voluntary contributions by workers. 4. The gross replacement rate measures the ratio of taxes paid per year by workers to their annual Social Security pension when they retire. 5. In the year prior to retirement, a worker earned $20,000 and paid $5,000 in taxes on those earnings. His annual Social Security pension is $10,000 per year. Then it follows that his net replacement rate is 50 percent. 6. The gross replacement rate for Social Security pensions is the same for all workers independent of their preretirement earnings. 7. The annual growth in wages subject to Social Security taxes is 3 percent. Given the payroll tax rate, the growth in funds available to pay pension benefits is also 3 percent. 8. The asset-substitution effect of Social Security pensions discourages saving. 9. The availability of Social Security pensions to workers over normal retirement age results in an income effect unfavorable to work but no substitution effect. 10. The bequest effect of Social Security encourages workers to save less. 11. The normal retirement age for Social Security old-age pensions is 67 for people born in the United States in 1960 or later. 12. Workers in the United States can retire under Social Security at age 62 with lower pensions than they would receive at their normal retirement age. 13. As of 2009, retired workers between the ages of 62 and their normal retirement age were subject to an “earnings test” that reduced their pension by $1 for each $2 of earnings after a certain minimum level of earnings. 14. Reducing the replacement rate will have no effect on the tax rate necessary to finance pensions under a pay-as-you-go, tax-financed pension system. 15. Workers who quit their jobs are eligible for unemployment insurance benefits in the United States. 16. By 2050, the expected percentage of the U.S. population that is considered elderly will be less than 20%. 17. Social Security was created in 1965. 18. On average, the elderly are less likely to be poor when compared to the rest of the U.S. population. Multiple Choice Questions 1. The Social Security retirement system: a. is a fully funded pension system. b. is a tax-financed system that pays benefits from taxes that are invested to return principal and interest to workers when they retire. c. is a tax-financed retirement system that finances pensions by taxing workers each year and transferring the bulk of revenues obtained directly to retirees. d. does not use taxes on workers to pay pensions to retirees. 2. The gross replacement rate: a. measures a worker’s monthly retirement benefit divided by monthly earnings before taxes in the year prior to retirement. b. measures a worker’s monthly retirement benefit divided by monthly earnings after taxes in the year prior to retirement. c. is an increasing function of gross monthly earnings prior to retirement. d. is independent of gross monthly earnings prior to retirement. 3. A worker earns $2,000 per month before taxes. He pays $140 per month payroll tax on those wages. In addition, the income taxes on those wages are $360 per month. On retirement, the worker receives a Social Security pension of $750 per month. Which of the following statements is true? a. The worker’s gross replacement rate is 50 percent. b. The worker’s net replacement rate is 50 percent. c. The worker’s net replacement rate is 38 percent. d. The worker’s net replacement rate is 75 percent. 4. The growth in hourly wages over the past 50 years has averaged about 2 percent per year. How­ever, the growth in Social Security pensions has far exceeded this 2-percent rate. The growth in tax revenue to finance Social Security benefits in excess of 2 percent per year can be accounted for by: a. increases in payroll tax rates. b. use of other taxes beside the payroll tax to pay Social Security benefits. c. an increase in the number of workers paying Social Security taxes. d. either (a) or (b) e. either (a) or (c) 5. Given the structure and level of gross replacement rates and the expected future growth of labor earnings subject to the payroll tax, the tax rates used to tax payrolls were increased in the 1980s because: a. the number of retirees per worker will increase. b. the number of retirees per worker will decrease. c. wages are expected to decline. d. the size of the work force is expected to increase. 6. Which of the following is likely to increase the net federal debt as a share of GDP? a. a federal budget surplus. b. a federal budget deficit. c. a recession. d. either b or c. 7. The asset-substitution effect of the Social Security retirement system leads all workers to: a. save more for retirement. b. save less for retirement. c. save absolutely nothing for retirement. d. work more 8. Which of the following is a consequence of a growing federal budget deficit in the United States? a. A decrease in the federal debt outstanding. b. An increase in the federal debt outstanding. c. A decrease in the portion share of federal government expenditures that must be allocated to interest in the future. d. An increase in national saving. 9. The induced-retirement effect of the Social Security pension system induces workers to: a. save less for retirement. b. save more for retirement. c. reduce savings for retirement to zero. d. work more after retirement. 10. Unemployment insurance benefits are: a. financed by payroll taxes levied on workers. b. financed by payroll taxes levied on employers. c. both (a) and (b) d. financed by sales taxes. 11. Which of the following is true about the Social Security pension system in the United States? a. Pensions received by retired workers are based entirely on their contributions to the Social Security pension trust fund and the investment return on that fund. b. Pensions received by married retirees with dependents are greater than that received by those without dependents. c. Gross replacement rates are inversely related to preretirement earnings. d. both (b) and (c) 12. Which of the following can decrease tax rates necessary to pay pensions for a pay-as-you-go pension system? a. an increase in replacement rates b. a decrease in the retirement age c. an increase in the size of the work force d. an increase in the number of retirees 13. Unless legislation is introduced to change the normal retirement age, people born in 1960 or later will be able to retire with full Social Security benefits at age: a. 62. b. 65. c. 66. d. 67. 14. The earnings test for retirees: a. increases their incentive to work. b. is applied to all retirees. c. is applied only to retirees below normal retirement age. d. reduces pension benefits by $1 for each $2 of earnings. e. both (c) and (d) 15. A nation has 40 million current retirees and a work force of 100 million. Which of the following is true? a. The replacement rate is 40 percent. b. The replacement is 2.5. c. The dependency ratio is 0.4. d. The dependency ratio is 2.5. 16. Social Security tax rates can be reduced if: a. taxable wages decline. b. the retirement age is lowered. c. the retirement age is raised. d. the work force decreases in size. 17. A retiree subject to the earnings test under Social Security: a. can earn as much as he or she chooses without losing Social Security pension benefits. b. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced by one dollar for each dollar of labor earnings. c. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced immediately by one dollar for each three dollars of labor earnings. d. has his or her Social Security pension benefits reduced by one dollar for each two dollars of earnings after a certain minimum amount per year. 18. A pay-as-you-go social security retirement system is: a. exemplified by the current U.S. social security system. b. exemplified by the current Chilean social security system. c. designed to have retirees set aside a contribution specifically for themselves during their earlier working life. d. both (a) and (b). 19. Approximately, what percentage of beneficiaries of U.S. Social Security are retired workers? a. 50% b. 60% c. 70% d. 80% 20. The Social Security Act was implemented in the United States in: a. 1927. b. 1935. c. 1947. d. 1965. 


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ECO 450 Week 4 Assignment 1 Social Security Insolvency

ECO 450 Week 4 Assignment 1 Social Security Insolvency | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ECO 450 Week 4 Assignment 1 Social Security Insolvency


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ECO 450 Week 2 Quiz 1 Ch. 1

ECO 450 Week 2 Quiz 1 Ch. 1 | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ECO 450 Week 2 Quiz 1 Ch. 1 1. On average, persons in the United States devote more of their annual budgets to taxes than they do to food. 2. A universally observed function of government is the establishment of property rights. 3. The total share of GDP accounted for by government spending in the United States has declined significantly since 1980. 4. In 1929, the federal government spent more than was spent by state and local governments. 5. Since 1930, the percent of GDP devoted to government expenditures has more than tripled. 6. The costs imposed by government regulations on business firms are included in budget data on government expenditures. 7. Government consumption does not require resources to be reallocated from private to government use. 8. Since 1959, the percent of federal government expenditures devoted to transfers has increased by more than 50 percent. 9. Transfer payments, including Social Security and welfare and medical assistance, account for nearly 60 percent of federal government expenditures. 10. Interest on the federal government’s debt accounts for about 20 percent of federal government expenditure. 11. Federal grants-in-aid to state and local governments finance about 20 percent of annual spending by these governments. 12. The federal government allocates about 10 percent of its budget to Social Security. 13. State and local governments in the United States spend a bit more than one-third of their budgets on education. 14. Sales taxes account for about 22 percent of state and local government revenue in the United States. 15. The federal government obtains about half of its revenue annually from retail sales taxes. 16. State governments do not fund any part of Medicaid. 17. The social compact is an 18th century idea by political theorists. 18. The proportion of revenue received by the federal government from payroll taxes is higher than the proportion of revenue received by state and local governments from payroll taxes. Multiple Choice Questions 1. The real cost of government goods and services is: a. money. b. taxes. c. the private goods and services foregone. d. inflation. 2. If the economy is currently operating on a point on the production possibility curve for government goods and services versus private goods and services, a. an annual increase in government goods and services can be obtained without any sacrifice of annual private goods and services. b. it will be impossible to increase annual output of government goods and services. c. a decrease in the annual output of government goods and services will have no effect on the annual output of private goods and services. d. a decrease in the annual output of government goods and services will allow an increase in annual output of private goods and services. 3. Government goods and services are usually: a. not rationed by prices. b. sold in markets. c. made available to persons according to their willingness and ability to pay. d. financed by revenue obtained from sales. 4. Taxes: a. are prices paid for the right to consume government goods and services. b. are compulsory payments not directly related to the benefits received from government goods and services. c. never affect economic incentives. d. are used by private firms to raise revenue. 5. A mixed economy is one in which: a. there are no markets. b. government activity accounts for a significant proportion of the value of goods and services produced. c. there is no government. d. all goods and services are sold in markets. 6. Government purchases for consumption and investment: a. are made to acquire resources necessary to produce government goods and services. b. are designed to redistribute purchasing power among citizens. c. have increased in importance as a percent of federal spending since 1959. d. do not withdraw resources from private use. 7. Transfer payments by the federal government in the United States account for about: a. 25 percent of federal government expenditures. b. 10 percent of federal government expenditures. c. 40 percent of GDP. d. 60 percent of federal government expenditures. 8. Total annual expenditures by federal, state, and local governments in the United States in the 1990s accounted for roughly: a. 20 percent of annual GDP. b. 30 percent of annual GDP. c. 50 percent of annual GDP. d. 75 percent of annual GDP. 9. Federal government expenditures in the United States account for about: a. 23 percent of annual GDP. b. 33 percent of annual GDP. c. 43 percent of annual GDP. d. 53 percent of annual GDP. 10. About 80 percent of federal receipts are accounted for by: a. corporate profits taxes. b. sales taxes. c. excise taxes. d. payroll and personal income taxes. 11. If the economy is operating at full employment and using resources efficiently, then an increase in spending for homeland security this year will: a. require that resources be reallocated to homeland security services without sacrificing any alternative goods and services. b. be possible if resources are reallocated to homeland security services, but it will also mean that the output of some other goods and services will have to fall. c. be impossible. d. be possible only if there is an improvement in technology or more resources made available. 12. Which of the following is an example of a political institution? a. a market b. elections with winners determined by majority rule c. representative government d. both (b) and (c) 13. Nonmarket rationing means that: a. those willing to pay can buy as much of a product as they choose. b. prices are used to sell products. c. goods and services are not rationed by prices. d. willingness to pay is not a factor in determining who can enjoy a good or service. e. both (c) and (d) 14. The U.S. economy is best characterized as a: a. pure market economy. b. socialist economy. c. pure capitalistic, free-enterprise system. d. mixed economy. 15. State and local government expenditure in the United States accounts for about: a. 32 percent of GDP. b. 22 percent of GDP. c. 12 percent of GDP. d. 7 percent of GDP. 16. Following the circular flow of a mixed economy, firms receive a flow of dollars from and send goods and services to: a. Output Markets. b. Input Markets. c. Households. d. Government. 17. Following the circular flow of a mixed economy, which entity or entities distribute resources? a. Firms only. b. Input Markets only. c. Government and Households. d. Households and Input Markets. 18. When has the U.S. experienced government expenditures in the range of 40% to 50% of GDP? a. 2000 to 2009. b. 1950 to 1959. c. 1940 to 1949. d. It has never happened. 19. In 2008, which country listed below has the highest percentage of government spending relative to GDP? a. France. b. Ireland. c. Japan. d. Canada. 20. The old-age dependency ratio is: a. the proportion of the population that is 60 years or older over the proportion of the population that is less than 60 years of age. b. the proportion of the population that is 65 years or older over the proportion of the population that is 15 to 64 years of age. c. the proportion of the population that is 70 years or older over the proportion of the population that is 20 to 69 years of age. d. the total government expenditure on programs for the elderly over the number of citizens that are 65 years or older.


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ECO 450 Week 10 Quiz 8 Ch 15 and 16

ECO 450 Week 10 Quiz 8 Ch 15 and 16 | ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change | Scoop.it
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ECO 450 Week 10 Quiz 8 Ch 15 and 16 1. The corporate income tax in the United States is levied only on economic profits. 2. Imputed interest from retained earnings are not deducted when computing taxable corporate income. 3. In general, the shorter the depreciation period allowed for tax purposes, the higher the tax burden on corporations. 4. Accelerated depreciation allows a firm to deduct more than the actual economic depreciation from its income each year. 5. Inflation causes an understatement of true depreciation cost. 6. If a corporation maximizes profits, an ad valorem tax on its profits will result in a reduction in output in the short run. 7. Assuming that the corporate income tax is not shifted to consumers in the short run, the long-run effect will be a reduction in the return to investment in both the corporate and noncorporate sector. 8. The excess burden of the corporate income tax stems from a misallocation of investment between the corporate and noncorporate sectors when the supply of savings is perfectly inelastic. 9. When the supply of savings is not perfectly inelastic, the corporate income tax can be shifted to workers. 10. In the long run the corporate income tax has no effect on the price of products produced by corporations. 11. The corporate income tax in the United States is levied on the sum of economic and normal profits. 12. The corporate income tax is levied only on retained earnings with dividends paid out exempt from taxation. 13. Because the corporate income tax base includes dividends, those dividends are taxed twice if they are also included in the personal income tax base. 14. Because the opportunity cost of a corporate equity is not tax deductible, the corporate income tax encourages borrowing, which allows interest cost to be deducted from corporate income. 15. If the corporate income tax is not shifted in the short run, then in the long run it will reduce the return to capital in the corporate sector only. 16. Depreciation is based on historic cost. 17. During periods of inflation historic cost overstates replacement cost. 18. Corporate dividends are paid from post-tax income. Multiple Choice Questions 1. The tax base for the corporate income tax in the United States is: a. the sum of normal and economic profits of corporations. b. economic profits of corporations. c. normal profits of corporations. d. retained earnings of corporations. 2. Accelerated depreciation allows corporations to: a. earn more interest on their capital costs. b. reduce capital costs to zero. c. reduce labor costs. d. increase the time period over which assets are depreciated. 3. If corporations maximize profits, the short-run incidence of a tax on its profits will be borne by: a. consumers. b. all investors. c. corporate shareholders. d. workers. 4. Assuming that corporations maximize profits and investors seek to maximize the return to their investments, the long-run impact of a corporate income tax is to: a. reduce the incomes of corporate shareholders only. b. reduce the incomes of workers only. c. reduce the incomes of all investors. d. increase the price of both corporate and noncorporate goods. 5. Assuming that the supply of savings is perfectly inelastic, the corporate income tax prevents the attainment of efficiency by: a. reducing annual savings. b. reducing annual investment. c. reducing wages. d. causing a misallocation of investment between the corporate and noncorporate sectors 6. Assuming that corporations maximize profits and investors maximize the return from their invest­ment, a corporate income tax is likely to: a. increase the price of corporate goods. b. decrease the price of noncorporate goods. c. both (a) and (b) d. have no effect on output prices. 7. Inflation affects corporate income by: a. understating depreciation and inventory costs. b. overstating capital gains. c. both (a) and (b) d. always increasing taxes. 8. Assuming that corporations maximize profits, that investors maximize the return to their invest­ments, and that the supply of savings is not perfectly inelastic, in the long run a corporate income tax will: a. not prevent investment markets from achieving efficiency. b. reduce investment. c. reduce wages. d. both (b) and (c) 9. Which of the following is true about the economic effects of the corporate income tax? a. Its incidence is likely to be borne entirely by workers. b. Its incidence is likely to be borne only by shareholders of corporations. c. Its incidence is likely to be borne only by consumers of corporate products. d. Its incidence is likely to be shared by owners of capital, workers, and consumers of corporate products. 10. According to the Harberger model of the incidence of the corporate income tax, the tax: a. reduces the return to capital in the corporate sector of the economy only. b. reduces the return to capital in all uses. c. has no effect on the return to capital. d. increases the return to capital. 11. If corporations maximize profit, a corporate income tax: a. has no affect on the profit-maximizing output in the short run. b. reduces the profit, maximizing output in the short run. c. increase the profit, maximizing output in the short run. d. increases the supply of corporate output in the short run. 12. Under the corporation income tax in the United States, a. interest on borrowed money cannot be deducted from the tax base. b. only economic profits are taxed. c. only normal profit is taxed. d. the opportunity cost of equity cannot be deducted from the tax base. 13. If the supply of savings is not perfectly elastic, the corporate income tax is likely to: a. increase investment. b. decrease investment. c. increase the supply of labor. d. decrease the supply of labor. 14. In the long run a corporate income tax that initially reduces the return to investment in the corpo­rate sector will also: a. reduce the return to capital in noncorporate sectors. b. increase the output of corporate goods. c. decrease the output of noncorporate goods. d. both (b) and (c) 15. Under the corporate income tax, a. dividends paid out to shareholders are deducted from corporate income. b. dividends are included in corporate income. c. retained earnings are included in corporate income. d. both (b) and (c) 16. The double taxation of dividends under U.S. tax code means: a. dividends are taxed while not being adjusted for inflation. b. dividends are paid from after-tax corporate income and then taxed again as personal income c. dividends are deducted as an expense at the corporate level, but as a gain at the personal level d. both (a) and (b) 17. If an all-equity firm has after-tax income of $100,000 based on a 34% income tax, what is the after-tax income of an equivalent firm that pays $15,000 in interest that is tax deductible? a. $85,000.00 b. $105,100.00 c. $90,100.00 d. $100,000.00 18. If interest on corporate debt is tax deductible, a firm’s return on equity increases because: a. after-tax income increases with the presence of debt. b. generally, the presence of debt reduces the amount of equity to a greater effect than the reduction in after-tax. c. debt reduces equity and increases after-tax income. d. the presence of debt to lead to increases in dividends. 19. Assuming no change in the payout structure, what measure would reduce corporate financing costs? a. allowing dividends to be deducted from income prior to assessing tax. b. a reduction in the tax rate. c. limiting the amount of interest that can be deducted from income prior to assessing tax. d. both (a) and (b) 20. The effective tax rate is: a. the same as the statutory tax rate. b. based on real economic profits. c. based on the nominal profits. d. not inflation adjusted. True/False Questions 1. Comprehensive consumption is measured by excluding increments in net worth from comprehen­sive income. 2. If two persons have equal labor earnings over their lifetimes and never receive any gifts or inheri­tances, then the discounted present value of income taxes that they pay will be the same despite any differences in their rates of saving. 3. A tax on comprehensive consumption will not prevent the attainment of efficiency in investment markets. 4. Under a comprehensive consumption tax, liability for payment of taxes on the amount of income saved in any year is deferred rather than eliminated. 5. Under a consumption tax, borrowing money will increase taxes that are due in the year the funds are borrowed. 6. If a flat-rate tax on comprehensive consumption yields the same revenue as a flat-rate tax on com­prehensive income, the tax rate for the two taxes must be equal. 7. Substituting a comprehensive consumption tax for an equal-yield comprehensive income tax will reduce excess burden in the labor market. 8. Sales taxes in the United States generally tax all personal services. 9. The value-added tax as used in Western Europe generally exempts investment goods from taxation. 10. The value-added tax, collected through the invoice method, exempts intermediate purchases from taxation. 11. A comprehensive income tax is more favorable to the incentive to save than a comprehensive con­sumption tax. 12. A comprehensive consumption tax is equivalent to a comprehensive tax on labor income. 13. A comprehensive consumption tax will not prevent labor markets from attaining efficiency. 14. The retail sales tax is a major source of revenue for the federal government in the United States. 15. As used in Europe, the value-added tax typically excludes services from the tax base. 16. A consumption tax is the same as an income tax. 17. Annual comprehensive consumption is equal to annual comprehensive income if there is no annual savings. 18. A sales tax encourages saving and discourages consumption. Multiple Choice Questions 1. A flat-rate tax on comprehensive consumption: a. will reduce the market rate of interest. b. will reduce net interest received by savers in any given year. c. will not result in any difference between the gross interest rate paid by borrowers and the net interest rate received by savers. d. causes no loss of efficiency in labor markets. 2. Assuming that a person never receives any cash gifts or bequests, a tax on comprehensive con­sumption is equivalent to a(n): a. tax on capital income. b. tax on labor income. c. income tax. d. wealth tax. 3. A tax on comprehensive consumption: a. will not influence a taxpayer’s work-leisure choice. b. will not affect the incentive to save in ways that cause losses in efficiency. c. is likely to reduce saving. d. will exempt consumption of personal services from taxation. 4. Substitution of an equal-yield general consumption tax for an income tax will: a. improve efficiency in investment markets. b. impair efficiency in the labor market. c. increase taxes paid by those earning interest on income. d. both (a) and (b) e. both (b) and (c) 5. The differential incidence of substituting a tax on comprehensive consumption for a tax on compre­hensive income is likely to be: a. regressive. b. progressive. c. proportional. d. uncertain. 6. Suppose two individuals earn the same salary each year over their lifetimes. One individual saves 25 percent of his income each year, while the other saves nothing. Over their lifetimes under a comprehensive income tax, a. the discounted present value of taxes paid will be the same for both. b. the discounted present value of taxes paid will be greater for the saver. c. the discounted present value of taxes paid will be greater for the nonsaver. d. the saver will pay no tax on his interest income. 7. In most states, the retail sales tax can be regarded as equivalent to a: a. comprehensive tax on consumption. b. comprehensive tax on income. c. set of selective excise taxes. d. tax on the profits of retailers. 8. A consumption-type, value-added tax: a. will not cause losses in efficiency in labor markets. b. will not cause losses in efficiency in investment markets. c. both (a) and (b) d. taxes interest income. 9. The invoice method of collecting the value-added tax: a. requires firms to compute value added. b. taxes a firm’s sales at a fixed rate but allows a credit for taxes paid on purchases of interme­diate goods. c. requires firms to pay a fixed rate of taxation on both sales and purchases. d. taxes only intermediate purchases at a fixed rate. 10. Which of the following statements about taxes on consumption are true? a. Taxes on consumption do not distort choices between current and future consumption in ways that impair efficiency. b. Taxes on consumption have the same economic effects as taxes on income. c. Taxes on consumption are likely to reduce saving. d. Taxes on consumption have no effect on real wages. 11. Comprehensive consumption is: a. equal to comprehensive income. b. is comprehensive income plus savings. c. is comprehensive income minus savings. d. excludes services. 12. A direct tax on comprehensive consumption: a. requires taxpayers to report their annual income. b. requires taxpayers to report their annual savings. c. taxes savings. d. both (a) and (b) 13. Which of the following taxes is likely to be most favorable for capital accumulation? a. a comprehensive income tax b. a comprehensive tax on wealth c. a comprehensive tax on consumption d. an excise tax on gasoline 14. As administered in most states in the United States, the retail sales tax: a. has zero excess burden. b. distorts the choice between taxed goods and untaxed services, resulting in some efficiency loss. c. taxes all services. d. discourages saving. 15. The value-added tax used in the European Union: a. generally exempts services from taxation. b. requires all taxpayers to report value added. c. exempts investment purchases from taxation. d. taxes all transactions at the same low rate. 16. Nicholas Kaldor argued: a. consumption is a better index of the ability to pay than income. b. savings entails sacrifice and results in no increase in well-being. c. consumption provides little personal satisfaction and should be taxed for that reason. d. both (a) and (b) 17. An adult’s life cycle is considered to begin: a. 18 years old. b. 21 years old. c. upon earning fulltime employment. d. none of the above 18. Consumption-in-kind: a. is exemplified by services provided and consumed in the household. b. is the same as income-in-kind c. is easily determined. d. both (a) and (b) 19. What below is taxable under a consumption tax system? a. savings b. contributions to social security c. contributions to retirement funds d. a bequest at death 20. A cash-flow tax is: a. a modified version of a consumption tax. b. a modified version of an income tax. c. a tax that allows some savings to be excluded from tax. d. both (a) and (c)

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