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Pumpkin Seed Oil Found to Help Reverse Balding

Pumpkin Seed Oil Found to Help Reverse Balding | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

 

Researchers from the Republic of Korea's Pusan National University have confirmed that pumpkin seed oil increases hair growth among balding men.

 

The medical researchers tested the pumpkin seed oil on 76 male patients with moderate androgenic alopecia – male pattern hair loss. None of the patients had tried any previous medication, supplement or topical therapy for at least three months prior to the beginning of the study. The researchers recruited 90 patients, but excluded those with high liver enzyme levels.

 

The patients were divided into two groups and half were given a placebo. The treatment consisted of giving the patients 400 milligrams of the pumpkin seed oil per day in capsules. They were given two capsules before breakfast and two capsules before dinner.

 

After three months and at the end of the study at six months the patients were assessed using blinded practitioner analysis, and given a point score, which ranged from -3 (greatly decreased) to +3 (greatly increased).

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A Tale of Two Medicines
Natural Medicine, Pharmaceuticals and GMO’s, the Good, the Bad and the OMG! - (The information provided is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Never disregard professional medical advice, or delay in seeking it, because of something you have read on this scoopit page.)
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Matrine induces the apoptosis of lung cancer cells through downregulation of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins and the Akt signaling pathway

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer‑related mortality in humans. The prognosis for advanced lung cancer patients is extremely poor. Current standard care is rather ineffective for prolonging patient life while preserving satisfactory quality of life due to adverse side-effects. Matrine extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal plant Sophora flavescens was shown to induce cancer cell death in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on the proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells and the molecular basis of matrine-induced apoptosis. The results showed that matrine inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in lung cancer A549 and 95D cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The apoptotic effects of matrine on lung cancer cells appeared to act via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) signaling pathway and downregulation of the expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family proteins. Matrine exerts its cancer-killing effect via promoting apoptosis in lung cancer cells and may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic scheme for treating advanced lung cancer patients.

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Garlic compound fights source of food-borne illness better than antibiotics (100 times more effective than two popular antibiotics )

Garlic compound fights source of food-borne illness better than antibiotics (100 times more effective than two popular antibiotics ) | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

Researchers at Washington State University have found that a compound in garlic is 100 times more effective than two popular antibiotics at fighting the Campylobacter bacterium, one of the most common causes of intestinal illness. Their work was recently published in the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

 

The discovery opens the door to new treatments for raw and processed meats and food preparation surfaces.

 

“This work is very exciting to me because it shows that this compound has the potential to reduce disease-causing bacteria in the environment and in our food supply,” says Dr. Xiaonan Lu, a postdoctoral researcher and lead author of the paper.

 

“This is the first step in developing or thinking about new intervention strategies,” says Michael Konkel, a co-author who has been researching Campylobacter jejuni for 25 years.

 

“Campylobacter”, says Konkel, “is simply the most common bacterial cause of food-borne illness in the United States and probably the world.” Some 2.4 million Americans are affected every year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with symptoms including diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain and fever. The bacteria are also responsible for triggering nearly one-third of the cases of a rare paralyzing disorder known as Guillain-Barré syndrome.

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New study finds significant differences between organic and non-organic food.

New study finds significant differences between organic and non-organic food. | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

In the largest study of its kind, an international team of experts led by Newcastle University, UK, has shown that organic crops and crop-based foods are up to 69% higher in a number of key antioxidants than conventionally-grown crops. 

 

Analysing 343 studies into the compositional differences between organic and conventional crops, the team found that a switch to eating organic fruit, vegetable and cereals – and food made from them – would provide additional antioxidants equivalent to eating between 1-2 extra portions of fruit and vegetables a day.

The study, published today in the prestigious British Journal of Nutrition, also shows significantly lower levels of toxic heavy metals in organic crops.  Cadmium, which is one of only three metal contaminants along with lead and mercury for which the European Commission has set maximum permitted contamination levels in food, was found to be almost 50% lower in organic crops than conventionally-grown ones.

Newcastle University’s Professor Carlo Leifert, who led the study, says: “This study demonstrates that choosing food produced according to organic standards can lead to increased intake of nutritionally desirable antioxidants and reduced exposure to toxic heavy metals.

“This constitutes an important addition to the information currently available to consumers which until now has been confusing and in many cases is conflicting.”

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Full paper link: http://csanr.wsu.edu/m2m/papers/organic_meta_analysis/bjn_2014_full_paper.pdf

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Brazil Announces Dengue Fever Emergency in GM Mosquito Trials Region

Brazil Announces Dengue Fever Emergency in GM Mosquito Trials Region | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

Civil society groups today expressed alarm at an increase in dengue incidence, leading to an emergency decree, in a town in Brazil where releases of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes are taking place.

 

The promise was to create genetically modified mosquitoes that would end dengue, but results from field trials conducted in Bahia, Brazil have not been published to date and did not evaluate the relation between Aedes aegypti mosquito populations and the occurrence of dengue. Nevertheless, the Brazilian regulator Comissão Técnica Nacional de Biossegurança (CTNBio) recently gave the green light to the commercialization of the technology proposed by Moscamed Brazil in partnership with the English company Oxitec and the Universidade de São Paulo.

 

The Brazilian press had welcomed the new weapon to combat dengue but missed the information that Jacobina’s mayor, a locality where the trials took place, issued a decree in February 2014 renewing the state of emergency “due to the abnormal situation characterized as a biological disaster of dengue epidemic.”. Before that, Moscamed had announced 81% and 100% reduction in the number of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in at least two localities of Jacobina, claiming that this meant the experiments were a success. According to Oxitec, pilot-scale releases started in the north-west of Jacobina in June 2013 and the program will roll out across the entire city over two or three years .

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Supplementation of fish oil augments efficacy and attenuates toxicity of 5-fluorouracil in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis.

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, but has low therapeutic response rate and severe side effects. Recently, fish oil (FO) rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been preferred to chemosensitize tumor cells to anticancer drugs. Therefore, the current study is designed to evaluate chemotherapeutic efficacy and toxicity profile of 5-FU in combination with FO in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride/dextran sulfate sodium (DMH/DSS)-induced colon cancer model.

 

The therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU along with FO was analyzed through assessment of survival rate, tumor burden, volume, serum sialic acid levels, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression and index of cell proliferation such as cell cycle progression. Toxicological aspects were evaluated by standard functional and structural parameters related to spleen, gastrointestinal, liver and kidney.

 

In the present study, 5-FU in combination with FO increased the survival rate in carcinogen-treated animals. Synergism of 5-FU and FO was also reflected in significant inhibition in tumor growth and serum sialic acid levels in DMH/DSS model. Moreover, the combination dosage significantly augmented the inhibition of cell cycle progression, as shown by CK19 expression. Additionally, FO ameliorated hematologic depression, gastrointestinal, hepatic and renal toxicity caused by 5-FU as substantiated by a marked improvement in structural and functional alterations of these organs.

 

The supplementation of FO is potentially a promising option for increasing the therapeutic potential and mitigating the side effects of 5-FU.

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Plasma Vitamin D Concentration Influences Survival Outcome After a Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer

We investigated whether the plasma level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) influences survival outcome.

 

We prospectively studied 1,598 patients with stage I to III CRC. We sought association between plasma 25-OHD and stage-specific survival and tested for interaction between 25-OHD level and variation at the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene locus. Blood was sampled postoperatively, and plasma was assayed for 25-OHD by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. VDR polymorphisms (rs1544410, rs10735810, rs7975232, rs11568820) were genotyped, and haplotypes were inferred by using BEAGLE software. We tested for association between survival and 25-OHD, VDR genotype/haplotype, and after applying a VDR genotype–25-OHD interaction term. We conducted Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs).

 

We found strong associations between plasma 25-OHD concentration and CRC-specific (P = .008) and all-cause mortality (P = .003). Adjusted HRs were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.50 to 0.90) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.89), respectively (highest v lowest 25-OHD tertile), particularly in stage II disease (HR, 0.44; P = .004 for CRC-specific mortality). We detected gene-environment interactions between 25-OHD concentration and rs11568820 genotype for CRC-specific (P = .008) and all-cause (P = .022) mortality, number of protective alleles (P = .004 and P = .018, respectively), and GAGC haplotype at the VDR locus for all-cause mortality (P = .008).

 

In patients with stage I to III CRC, postoperative plasma vitamin D is associated with clinically important differences in survival outcome, higher levels being associated with better outcome. We observed interactions between 25-OHD level and VDR genotype, suggesting a causal relationship between vitamin D and survival. The influence of vitamin D supplementation on CRC outcome will require further investigation.

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microRNAs in Circulation Are Altered in Response to Influenza A Virus Infection in Humans

microRNAs in Circulation Are Altered in Response to Influenza A Virus Infection in Humans | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

Changes in microRNA expression have been detected in vitro in influenza infected cells, yet little is known about them in patients. microRNA profiling was performed on whole blood of H1N1 patients to identify signature microRNAs to better understand the gene regulation involved and possibly improve diagnosis. Total RNA extracted from blood samples of influenza infected patients and healthy controls were subjected to microRNA microarray. Expression profiles of circulating microRNAs were altered and distinctly different in influenza patients. Expression of highly dysregulated microRNAs were validated using quantitative PCR. Fourteen highly dysregulated miRNAs, identified from the blood of influenza infected patients, provided a clear distinction between infected and healthy individuals. Of these, expression of miR-1260, -26a, -335*, -576-3p, -628-3p and -664 were consistently dysregulated in both whole blood and H1N1 infected cells. Potential host and viral gene targets were identified and the impact of microRNA dysregulation on the host proteome was studied. Consequences of their altered expression were extrapolated to changes in the host proteome expression. These highly dysregulated microRNAs may have crucial roles in influenza pathogenesis and are potential biomarkers of influenza.

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Fenugreek extract diosgenin and pure diosgenin inhibit the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line.

Fenugreek extract diosgenin and pure diosgenin inhibit the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line. | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

rigonella foenum-graecum generally known as fenugreek, has been normally cultivated in Asia and Africa for the edible and medicinal values of its seeds. Fenugreek leaves and seeds have been used widely for therapeutic purposes. Fenugreek seed is recognized to show anti-diabetic and anti-nociceptive properties and other things such as hypocholesterolaemic, and anti-cancer. Diosgenin is a steroidal saponin from therapeutic herbs, fenugreek (T. foenum-graceum L.), has been well-known to have anticancer properties. Telomerase activity is not identified in usual healthy cells, while in carcinogenic cell telomerase expression is reactivated. Therefore telomerase illustrates a promising cancer therapeutic target. We deliberate the inhibitory effect of pure diosgenin and fenugreek extract diosgenin on human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT) expression which is critical for telomerase activity. MTT-assay and qRT-PCR analysis were achieved to discover cytotoxicity effects and hTERT gene expression inhibition properties, separately. MTT results exhibited that IC50 for pure diosgenin were 47, 44 and 43 µM and for fenugreek extract diosgenin were 49, 48 and 47 µM for 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. Culturing cells with pure diosgenin and fenugreek extract diosgenin treatment caused in down regulation of hTERT expression. These results indication that pure and impure diosgenin prevents telomerase activity by down regulation of the hTERT gene expression in A549 lung cancer cell line, with the difference that pure compound is more effective than another.

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Vaccine-Induced Measles Virus-Specific T Cells Do Not Prevent Infection or Disease but Facilitate Subsequent Clearance of Viral RNA

Infection with wild-type measles virus (MeV) induces lifelong protection from reinfection, and parenteral delivery of the live attenuated measles vaccine (LAV) also provides protection from measles. The level of neutralizing antibody is a good indicator of protection, but the independent roles of MeV-specific antibody and T cells have not been identified. In this study, macaques immunized with LAV through a nebulizer and a mouthpiece developed MeV-specific T-cell responses but not neutralizing antibodies. Upon challenge with wild-type MeV, these animals developed rashes and viremias similar to those in naive animals but cleared viral RNA from blood 25 to 40 days faster. The nebulizer-immunized animals also had more robust MeV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses than the naive animals after challenge, characterized by a higher number and better durability of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells. Induction of MeV-specific circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells capable of producing multiple cytokines correlated with clearance of viral RNA in the nebulizer-immunized macaques. These studies demonstrated that MeV-specific T-cell immunity alone did not prevent measles, but T-cell priming enhanced the magnitude, durability, and polyfunctionality of MeV-specific T cells after challenge infection and correlated with more rapid clearance of MeV RNA.

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Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds.

Spirulina platensis is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement because of its hypocholesterolemic properties. Among other bioactive substances, it is also rich in tetrapyrrolic compounds closely related to bilirubin molecule, a potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible anticancer effects of S. platensis and S. platensis-derived tetrapyrroles using an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components [phycocyanobilin (PCB) and chlorophyllin, a surrogate molecule for chlorophyll A] were tested on several human pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenotransplanted nude mice. The effects of experimental therapeutics on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione redox status were also evaluated. Compared to untreated cells, experimental therapeutics significantly decreased proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.16 g•L-1 [S. platensis], 60 μM [PCB], and 125 μM [chlorophyllin], p<0.05). The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis were also shown in vivo, where inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth was evidenced since the third day of treatment (p < 0.05). All tested compounds decreased generation of mitochondrial ROS and glutathione redox status (p = 0.0006; 0.016; and 0.006 for S. platensis, PCB, and chlorophyllin, respectively). In conclusion, S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components substantially decreased the proliferation of experimental pancreatic cancer. These data support a chemopreventive role of this edible alga. Furthermore, it seems that dietary supplementation with this alga might enhance systemic pool of tetrapyrroles, known to be higher in subjects with Gilbert syndrome.

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Full study: http://www.annalsofhepatology.com/revista/numeros/2014/15_142_v13n2_2014_AnticancerEffects.pdf

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Evaluation of the Effect of Blackcurrant Products on Gut Microbiota and on Markers of Risk for Colon Cancer in Humans.

Evaluation of the Effect of Blackcurrant Products on Gut Microbiota and on Markers of Risk for Colon Cancer in Humans. | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

The purpose of this study was to determine in healthy humans whether First Leaf (FL; composed of blackcurrant extract powder, lactoferrin and lutein) and Cassis Anthomix 30 (CAM30; blackcurrant extract powder) can positively modify the colonic microbiota by enhancing the growth of the beneficial bacteria and inactivating the toxic bacterial enzymes which are known to be involved in colonic carcinogenesis. Thirty healthy adult male and female volunteers were recruited for this study. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was carried out to analyse the populations of fecal microbiota. Consumption of FL and CAM30 led to significant increases (P < 0.0001) in the population sizes of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria whereas the population sizes of Clostridium spp. and Bacteroides spp were decreased significantly (P < 0.0001). In addition, feeding of FL and CAM30 decreases the activity of β-glucuronidase (bacterial enzyme which is considered to be one of the enzymes that increases risk for colorectal cancer) and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the fecal pH. In conclusion, the results of this study open up the possibility that consumption of FL and CAM30 can offer various benefits to human health through acting as novel prebiotic agents via increasing the numbers of beneficial bacteria (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) in the gut.

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Luteolin Induces Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis through Binding Hsp90 to Suppress Constitutive Activation of STAT3

Luteolin Induces Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis through Binding Hsp90 to Suppress Constitutive Activation of STAT3 | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

Abnormal activity of STAT3 is associated with a number of human malignancies. Hsp90 plays a central role in stabilizing newly synthesized proteins and participates in maintaining the functional competency of a number of signaling transducers involved in cell growth, survival and oncogenesis, such as STAT3. Hsp90 interacts with STAT3 and stabilizes Tyr-phosphorylated STAT3. It has been reported that luteolin possesses anticancer activity through degradation of Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3.

 

We found that overexpression of Hsp90 inhibited luteolin-induced degradation of Tyr705-phosphorylated STAT3 and luteolin also reduced the levels of some other Hsp90 interacting proteins. Results from co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that luteolin prevented the association between Hsp90 and STAT3 and induced both Tyr705- and Ser727-phosphorylated STAT3 degradation through proteasome-dependent pathway. The molecular modeling analysis with CHARMm–Discovery Studio 2.1(DS 2.1) indicated that luteolin could bind to the ATP-binding pocket of Hsp90. SPR technology-based binding assay confirmed the association between luteolin and Hsp90. ATP-sepharose binding assay displayed that luteolin inhibited Hsp90-ATP binding.

 

Luteolin promoted the degradation of Tyr705- and Ser727-phosphorylated STAT3 through interacting with Hsp90 and induced apoptosis of cancer cells. This study indicated that luteolin may act as a potent HSP90 inhibitor in antitumor strategies.

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Changes in the Contents of Anthocyanins and Other Compounds in Blackberry Fruits Due to Freezing and Long-Term Frozen Storage.

Changes in the Contents of Anthocyanins and Other Compounds in Blackberry Fruits Due to Freezing and Long-Term Frozen Storage. | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fast and slow freezing and frozen storage on the metabolite content of six blackberry cultivars. The content of metabolites determined with HPLC RI/PDA-MS in stored blackberries was compared with the initial content of the fruit. During frozen storage of fruits a loss of vitamin C up to 80% has been recorded along with changes of color values, which shifted to blue and yellow hues. The color changes were accompanied with increased pH levels and content of anthocyanins. Most of the phenolic groups, sugars, and organic acids showed a better extraction after storage, especially in the slow freezing treatment due to a higher degree of tissue damage by freezing. The ‘Thornless Evergreen’ cultivar was especially rich in sugars, vitamin C, and phenolic compounds, but the highest levels of anthocyanins were determined in ‘Loch Ness’ cultivar.

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Effect of Lychee Fruit Extract (Oligonol) on Peripheral Circulation, a Pilot Study

Effect of Lychee Fruit Extract (Oligonol) on Peripheral Circulation, a Pilot Study | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

 Poor blood circulation often manifests as small but chronic temperature differences in the peripheral extremities, and the surface of the skin may be an indication of abnormal blood flow and more serious vascular or circulation disorders. This study investigates the effect of Oligonol, a highly bioavailable source of low–molecular weight polyphenols extracted from lychee fruit, on peripheral blood circulation using skin thermography. The results suggest that Oligonol might act as a vasodilator and be an effective treatment for a variety of vasoconstriction symptoms such as cold hands and feet, shoulder discomfort, and diabetes-related vascular problems.

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New research reveals how cannabis compound could slow tumour growth.

Scientists at the University of East Anglia have shown how the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis could reduce tumour growth in cancer patients.

 

Research published today reveals the existence of previously unknown signaling platforms which are responsible for the drug’s success in shrinking tumours.

It is hoped that the findings could help develop a synthetic equivalent with anti-cancer properties.

The research was co-led with the Universidad Complutense de Madridin, Spain. The team used samples of human cancer cells to induce tumours in mice. They then targeted the tumours with doses of the cannabis compound THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol). They found that two cell receptors in particular were responsible for the drug’s anti-tumour effects.

Dr Peter McCormick, from UEA’s school of Pharmacy, said: “THC, the major active component of marijuana, has anti-cancer properties. This compound is known to act through a specific family of cell receptors called cannabinoid receptors. However, it was unclear which of these receptors were responsible for the anti-tumour effects of THC.

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Histone Modifications Are Associated with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol mediated Alterations in Antigen specific T Cell Responses

Marijuana is one of the most abused drugs due to its psychotropic effects. Interestingly, it is also used for medicinal purposes. The main psychotropic component in marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has also been shown to mediate potent anti-inflammatory properties. Whether the immunomodulatory activity of THC is mediated by epigenetic regulation has not been investigated previously. In this study, we employed ChIP-Seq technology to examine the in vivo effect of THC on global histone methylation in lymph node cells of mice immunized with a superantigen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B. We compared genome-wide histone H3 Lys-4, Lys-27, Lys-9, and Lys-36 trimethylation and histone H3 Lys-9 acetylation patterns in such cells exposed to THC or vehicle. Our results showed that THC treatment leads to the association of active histone modification signals to Th2 cytokine genes and suppressive modification signals to Th1 cytokine genes, indicating that such a mechanism may play a critical role in the THC-mediated switch from Th1 to Th2. At the global level, a significant portion of histone methylation and acetylation regions were altered by THC. However, the overall distribution of these histone methylation signals among the genomic features was not altered significantly by THC, suggesting that THC activates the expression of a subset of genes while suppressing the expression of another subset of genes through histone modification. Functional classification of these histone marker-associated genes showed that these differentially associated genes were involved in various cellular functions, from cell cycle regulation to metabolism, suggesting that THC had a pleiotropic effect on gene expression in immune cells. Altogether, the current study demonstrates for the first time that THC may modulate immune response through epigenetic regulation involving histone modifications.

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Anti-Cancer Properties Found in Jamaican Purple Yams.

Anti-Cancer Properties Found in Jamaican Purple Yams. | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

A research center at the University of the West Indies campus in Jamaica, announced the discovery of the presence of anti-cancer properties in purple yams.

 

The UWI, Mona Campus officials said Dr. Dennis Bailey from the Biotechnology Centre made the discovery while conducting doctoral studies.

 

The study reportedly involved focus on indigenous varieties of yams cultivated in Jamaica, known as the Dioscorea alata, cultivar St. Vincent dark night, and moonshine yams.

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Now we know why drugs don't work on pancreatic cancer

Now we know why drugs don't work on pancreatic cancer | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

The trouble with treating cancer is that each type has its own quirks. The quirks of pancreatic cancer make it one of the most lethal. The survival period after diagnosis is only four to six months. The main reason is that treatment with drugs – chemotherapy – which has had some success in extending lives for patients with other cancers, fails in the case of pancreatic cancer.

 

The widely believed reason for this failure has been that in pancreatic cancer, the tissue that surrounds the tumour, called the stroma, blocks the delivery of chemotherapy drugs to the tumour. A new study, published in Cancer Cell, questions that logic. It shows that the stroma, instead of supporting tumour progression, inhibits it by activating body’s immune system’s attack on the tumour.

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Powerful Protection Against Cellular Aging.

Powerful Protection Against Cellular Aging. | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

Conclusive evidence now indicates that PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) activates cell signaling pathways that have the potential to reverse cellular aging!

 

PQQ has previously been shown to promote growth of new mitochondria within aging cells, up-regulate cellular metabolism, protect neurons, and repair DNA!    

   

These and other synergistic signaling effects have the combined ability to promote longevity at the critical subcellular level.

PQQ has been found in all plant species ever tested. Scientists have gone so far as to state that PQQ may be "vital to life.

 

Scientists have found that PQQ, a critical coenzyme, plays a leading role in boosting critical cell signaling mechanisms.


These signaling pathways regulate a variety of physiological and molecular processes throughout the body processes that have an impact on key biomarkers of aging, such as mitochondrial function   and cellular defense against oxidative stress.

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Capsaicin-Induced Activation of p53-SMAR1 Auto-Regulatory Loop Down-Regulates VEGF in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer to Restrain Angiogenesis

Capsaicin-Induced Activation of p53-SMAR1 Auto-Regulatory Loop Down-Regulates VEGF in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer to Restrain Angiogenesis | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite decades of research, the treatment options for lung cancer patients remain inadequate, either to offer a cure or even a substantial survival advantage owing to its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy. Our results propose the effectiveness of capsaicin in down-regulating VEGF expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells in hypoxic environment. Capsaicin-treatment re-activated p53-SMAR1 positive feed-back loop in these cells to persuade p53-mediated HIF-1α degradation and SMAR1-induced repression of Cox-2 expression that restrained HIF-1α nuclear localization. Such signal-modulations consequently down regulated VEGF expression to thwart endothelial cell migration and network formation, pre-requisites of angiogenesis in tumor micro-environment. The above results advocate the candidature of capsaicin in exclusively targeting angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF in tumor cells to achieve more efficient and cogent therapy of resistant NSCLC.

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Upregulation of COX-2 in the lung cancer promotes overexpression of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) via PGE2-dependent pathway

It is apparent that lung cancer is associated with inflammation, with accompanying hallmark elevations of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. However, the effects of these changes on MRP efflux transporters have not been thoroughly investigated before. Here, we report that upregulation of COX-2 can induce overexpression of MRP4 in both A549 non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines and mouse lung cancer models. In A549 cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment induced upregulation of COX-2 and MRP4 together, but not other MRP transporters. Transient overexpression of human COX-2 cDNA also specifically increased COX-2 and MRP4. Moreover, COX inhibitor treatment and COX-2-specific siRNA significantly inhibited the upregulation of MRP4. Additionally, PMA-treatment increased extracellular PGE2 levels, likely due to increased MRP4 function. Likewise, COX-2-specific siRNA reduced extracellular PGE2 levels. Furthermore, COX-2 upregulation resulted in an increase in mPGES-1, an enzyme responsible for PGE2 production. Finally, metastasized lung cancer model mice exhibited increased expression levels of COX-2 and MRP4, as well as mPGES-1. In conclusion, the present study suggests that overexpression of MRP4 in lung cancer may be attributable to COX-2 upregulation via a PGE2-dependent pathway.

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Anticancer activity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Indian gooseberry): inhibition of transcription factor AP-1 and HPV gene expression in cervical cancer cells.

Plant products of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are traditionally consumed for its immense nutritive and medicinal values. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it exerts it effects is less understood. In this study, we investigated mechanism of action of P. emblica fruit extract (PE) by studying its effect on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity and human papillomavirus (HPV) transcription that are essential for tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells. PE resulted in a dose-and time-dependent inhibition of DNA binding activity of constitutively active AP-1 in both HPV16-positive (SiHa) and HPV18-positive (HeLa) cervical cancer cells. PE-induced AP-1 inhibition was found mediated through downregulation of constituent AP-1 proteins, c-Jun, JunB, JunD, and c-Fos; however, the kinetics of their inhibition varied in both the cell types. Inhibition of AP-1 by PE was accompanied by suppression of viral transcription that resulted in growth inhibition of cervical cancer cells. Growth inhibitory activity of PE was primarily manifested through induction of apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that P. emblica exhibits its anticancer activities through inhibition of AP-1 and targets transcription of viral oncogenes responsible for development and progression of cervical cancer thus indicating its possible utility for treatment of HPV-induced cervical cancers.

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Detoxication of Airborne Pollutants by Broccoli Sprout Beverage.

Detoxication of Airborne Pollutants by Broccoli Sprout Beverage. | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

This week in the journal Cancer Prevention Research, scientists from Johns Hopkins and China's Qidong Liver Cancer Institute report that daily consumption of a half-cup of "broccoli-sprout beverage"—a tea made with broccoli sprouts—produced rapid, sustained, high-level excretion of benzene in research subjects' urine. Their conclusion, building on prior research, is that broccoli helps the human body break down benzene and excrete its byproducts. As benzene is a known human carcinogen commonly found in polluted air in both urban and rural areas, voiding it is an unmitigated virtue.

 

The broccoli-sprout beverage also increased the levels of the lung irritant acrolein, another common air pollutant, in the subjects' urine. 

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Pumpkin Seed Oil Found to Help Reverse Balding

Pumpkin Seed Oil Found to Help Reverse Balding | A Tale of Two Medicines | Scoop.it

 

Researchers from the Republic of Korea's Pusan National University have confirmed that pumpkin seed oil increases hair growth among balding men.

 

The medical researchers tested the pumpkin seed oil on 76 male patients with moderate androgenic alopecia – male pattern hair loss. None of the patients had tried any previous medication, supplement or topical therapy for at least three months prior to the beginning of the study. The researchers recruited 90 patients, but excluded those with high liver enzyme levels.

 

The patients were divided into two groups and half were given a placebo. The treatment consisted of giving the patients 400 milligrams of the pumpkin seed oil per day in capsules. They were given two capsules before breakfast and two capsules before dinner.

 

After three months and at the end of the study at six months the patients were assessed using blinded practitioner analysis, and given a point score, which ranged from -3 (greatly decreased) to +3 (greatly increased).

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Vitamin K2 and Bone Quality.

Vitamin K is a cofactor required for post-translational gamma-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation and anti-coagulation factors; osteocalcin (OC), essential for bone metabolism; and matrix Gla proteins (MGP), an inhibitor of artery calcification. In addition to activation of OC, vitamin K 2 induces collagen accumulation in the bone matrix. The principle effects of vitamin K on bone health are not to increase bone mineral density but to promote bone quality and bone strength. Vitamin K 2 , as menaquinone-7 (MK-7), is the only major vitamin K homolog which can activate OC at nutritional doses. The higher efficacy of MK-7 is due to its better bioavailability and longer half-life compared to other vitamin K homologs. Furthermore, a normal nutritional intake of MK-7 has been shown to activate MGP, which inhibit artery calcification, and has been associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, MK-7 is thought to contribute to calcium homeostasis in arteries as well as bones.
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