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Team honored for ‘revolutionizing the science of cryptography.’
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One of Goldwasser and Micali’s most significant contributions is their 1985 paper, with Charles Rackoff, titled “The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof Systems.” It introduced knowledge complexity, a concept that deals with hiding information from an adversary, and is a quantifiable measure of how much “useful information” could be extracted. The paper initiated the idea of “zero-knowledge” proofs, in which interaction (the ability of provers and verifiers to send each other messages back and forth) and probabilism (the ability to toss coins to decide which messages to send) enable the establishment of a fact via a statistical argument without providing any additional information as to why it is true. Zero-knowledge proofs were a striking new philosophical idea that provided the essential language for speaking about security of cryptographic protocols by controlling the leakage of knowledge. Subsequent works by Oded Goldreich, Micali and Avi Wigderson, and by Michael Benor, Goldwasser and Wigderson, showed that every multiparty computation could be carried out securely, revealing to the players no more knowledge than prescribed by the desired outcome. These papers exhibited the power and utility of zero-knowledge protocols, and demonstrated their ubiquitous and omnipotent character.
Dans le climat actuel de cyber-attaques et d'intrusions régulières dans les systèmes informatiques, la cryptographie devient de moins en moins importante...