A New Paradigm of Development
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Innovation Favors The Collaborative Minds

Innovation Favors The Collaborative Minds | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it

Penicillin, polyethylene, yellow sticky notes and the impotence pill. Just a few of the countless innovations that are the result of serendipity, a particularly intriguing phenomenon in which you discover something unexpected and useful while you are actually looking for something completely different.


Via Peter Verschuere
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   Yes.  This  is  real  work  of  your  Brain.

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A New Paradigm of Development
Unfavorable conditions dictate a New Paradigm of Development, namely the introduction of Nanotechnology for consumers.
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Herd on the Street? #BankOfAmerica Survey Calls #Bitcoin 'Most Crowded Trade' - #CoinDesk #cryptoTrading #trading

Herd on the Street? #BankOfAmerica Survey Calls #Bitcoin 'Most Crowded Trade' - #CoinDesk #cryptoTrading #trading | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Money has piled into bitcoin, portending an eventual stampede to sell, according to 26% of fund managers surveyed by Bank of America.

Via Lionel Gikonyo
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Money  Best  Movie !!!
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Lionel Gikonyo's curator insight, September 13, 2:59 PM

"Buying bitcoin is now the most crowded trade in the financial markets."

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America: Excelling at Mediocrity

America: Excelling at Mediocrity | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Recently, I've been around the world and then back to the US of A. And what strikes me is how fast many parts of the globe are forging ahead — and how decrepit coming home can feel in comparison (JFK airport, I'm looking at you).

Via Ana Valdés, John Michel
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The mightiest adversary that snaps great empires like twigs isn’t chimerical “globalization” — it’s glittering hubris, bedecked in the finery of denial. Hence, if the whispered rumors of our imminent decline are worth leaning in and listening to, then perhaps it’s worth trying to diagnose the depth of the plunge and the slope of the cliff before we scrabble for a handhold. - */S.Y\ For the Real Growth need Creativity for any Country and Economics .
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John Michel's curator insight, January 16, 2013 9:12 AM

An interesting post about how mediocrity becoming the new norm in America. 

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John Michel, experienced leader, humanitarian, visioneer, and renown status quo buster, is the author of the ground breaking book, Mediocre Me: How Saying No to the Status Quo will Propel you from Ordinary to Extraordinary. Check out his blog at www.MediocreMe.com or drop him a note at johnmichel@MediocreMe.com

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People Analytics - Use of Analytic in HR is Growing

People Analytics - Use of Analytic in HR is Growing | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
The use of analytics in HR is growing, with organizations aggressively building people analytics teams, buying analytics offerings, and developing analytics solutions. HR now has the chance to demonstrate ROI on its analytics efforts, helping to make the case for further investment.

Via Dave Cherry
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Unsurprisingly, all this leads back to greater investment in HR, generating a virtuous cycle where higher ROI justifies greater analytics investment. The success of analytics comes down to measuring the value of people to an organization—and analytics is key to unlocking that value. However, providing great data and insights is only part of the solution. The real value is in turning these insights into change that delivers business value.   -    */S.Y\  Transformation of Thought Leader give New Understanding & Analytical Wisdom and the Evolution on Content.
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Meaningful Work Should Not Be a Privilege of the Elite !

Meaningful Work Should Not Be a Privilege of the Elite ! | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Imaginative problem-solving is part of human nature. Participating in it is essential to the good life – and no elite minority should have a monopoly on that. So this raises the question: How do we enable more people to get involved in solving problems? Every person is capable of creative thought and action. Great managers know how to tap that superabundant resource, and they recognize that pooling creative energy usually accelerates progress. Many minds make lighter work.

Via Fouad Bendris
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What is the job that society needs to get done that it turns to competent managers to do? Increasingly, that job is not only to produce better goods and services more efficiently, but to organize individuals to collaborate and create together in unprecedented ways. - */S.Y\ Leadership's Secret is Find New Paradigm for Development.
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Fouad Bendris's curator insight, April 4, 2:54 PM
Inclusive prosperity is something every manager can help achieve. It is hard for anyone to be against the idea of inclusive prosperity. Of course the bounty produced by economic growth should be broadly shared. But the devil is in the details, and when people advocate for inclusive growth they don’t always have the same things in mind.
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OCCUPY TRANSMEDIA STORYTELLING NOW! · OccupyTMStory · Storify

This YOUR Transmedia Story...


Via Simon Staffans
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OCCUPYTRANSMEDIA STORYTELLING NOW.   -  */S.Y\   Personal Development is Best Motivation of My Business Development with New Opportunities for SME's.  Leadership's Secret is Find New Paradigm for Development.
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Building a brand-new Internet

Building a brand-new Internet | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Menny Barzilay CRUNCH NETWORK CONTRIBUTOR Menny Barzilay is with the Interdisciplinary Cyber Research Center at the Tel Aviv University, is a member of the Yuval Ne'eman Workshop for Science, Technology and Security Senior Forum, and the CEO of FortyTwo. How to join the network We do not possess the ability to read the future, and yet we can predict with a high level of certainty that we will see more major cybersecurity incidents in 2016 and 2017. The world’s cybersecurity capability is not able to advance in line with the growing vulnerabilities. We are faced by more and more threats each day, and hackers are becoming more sophisticated. Whether an organization invests $1 million or $100 million in its security infrastructure, it will still remain vulnerable. What’s worse, there appears no end to this disparity. Emerging security solutions, great as they may be, do not change the overall way of things; the Internet favors the attacker. Amazing entrepreneurs, as well as established companies, are creating solutions that implement better anomaly detection, better network segregation, better user identification and better leakage prevention. However, these are simply stepping stones, without the necessary leap forward that is required for a long-term solution. At the same time, the cost of securing businesses from cyberattacks is constantly increasing. This is compounded by old technologies not being replaced by new technologies. Instead, new technologies are being added to already crowded security infrastructures. Unless this changes, there may come a day in which it is no longer deemed cost-effective, business-wise, to introduce new services on the Internet. Incremental security changes will not work. We need disruptive innovation in the world of cybersecurity. A paradigm shift — something that will change dramatically the way things work. We want a solution that will have a significant positive effect, similar to the one created by the invention of the car, smartphone or time travel. I am going to discuss one such solution now — creating a new, much more secure Internet that will dramatically improve cyber resilience and, at the same time, dramatically reduce expenditures on cybersecurity. Welcome to the world of AGNs (Alternative Global Network). To understand the concept of AGNs, we must go back to 1969. In the beginning In 1969, the same year that Neil Armstrong became the first man to step on the moon and the Beatles released their last album, Abby Road, a first packet was transmitted over a small network named the “Advanced Research Projects Agency Network,” also known as the ARPANET. Trust was not something to be concerned about in this small and controlled network. Trust existed in the ARPANET because there was trust in the real world. The different users knew each other and the few connected devices were all controlled by the creators of the network. Risks such as fraud, hacking, malware, denial of service attacks and others were, to say the least, extremely improbable. As time went by, the ARPANET expanded and became the technical foundation for the Internet as we know it. So what do we have today? Billions of users, who don’t know each other and certainly do not trust one another, connecting through all sorts of devices (we have no clue what is connected to the Internet) and using the network in any way they deem fit. Trust has become a challenge. The Internet When the ARPANET project began, no one expected that it would become such a huge success. In these essential early stages, it was not designed with security in mind, but rather to ensure connectivity. And yet, in a very short time, the ARPANET grew from a small research network to the huge global network that we all use today. Many of the modern security challenges that we experience should be attributed to the fact that the Internet is not secured-by-design. It should be agreed that given the opportunity, we would definitely redesign it. And to make things worse, much worse, the way the Internet was implemented prevents us from upgrading it to a more secure version. Let me explain what I mean when I say that the Internet cannot be upgraded. We see a lot of innovation on the Internet. We see amazing new applications using new types of innovative protocols, like Voice over IP and video tunneling — things that no one imagined when the Internet started. Nevertheless, none of those innovative applications are improving the core way the Internet works. We have been using the same problematic TCP/IP stack (more or less) over the past few decades, with zero probability that it will be replaced in the years to come. We have an immediate need for a more efficient, secure, trustworthy and innovation-friendly (upgradeable) Internet. Why? To upgrade the Internet, we actually would have to upgrade all the routers, switches and other connected network devices. And that is impossible to achieve because the network devices are mostly embedded systems that are bundled with hardware. They do not have standard interfaces and only the manufacturer controls the software, which means there is no way to do it remotely. We would have to access and upgrade each and every device. Even with IPv6 we have failed. IPv6 is still not widely implemented, even though the IETF published its RFC in 1998 and everybody agreed about its importance. Google’s statistics show that only about 10 percent of the users who access Google services are doing so while using IPv6. And much like any other place in which innovation has taken a backseat, we see so many problems with networking technologies today: they are hard to manage, inefficient, unreliable, costly, prone to manipulations and the list goes on. Billions of new devices will be connected to the Internet in the coming years (according to Gartner). At the same time, as we have discussed, cybersecurity threats will dramatically increase. Therefore, we have an immediate need for a more efficient, secure, trustworthy and innovation-friendly (upgradeable) Internet. AGNs (next-generation Internet) Though upgrading the current Internet is an unfeasible task, there might be another way. Wireless connectivity technologies of all kinds (Wi-Fi, satellites, cellular, etc.) have vastly improved in recent years. And soon they will reach a point where commercial companies, by using a small number of network devices, could implement worldwide networks that will allow Internet access from everywhere, by anyone and at any time. Two great examples of companies that are currently working on bringing wireless Internet connectivity solutions to places around the globe that do not have traditional access are Google and Facebook — Google with activities like Project Loon, in which they are planning to use high-altitude balloons, and Facebook with activities like Internet.org that propose the use of solar-powered drones. Though daring, a worldwide wireless Internet is inevitable. It simply makes more sense than spending trillions on upgrading super-costly physical infrastructures. And herein lies the opportunity. A “worldwide wireless Internet access solution” will allow us to implement a new way of networking, instead of using the traditional TCP/IP Stack based network. This network will not necessarily be IP-based, but rather be built upon a new connectivity model — more secure, simpler to manage and more efficient. Let’s call this non-TCP/IP global network AGN: Alternative Global Network. Cybersecurity and AGN AGNs will introduce numerous opportunities (as well as numerous challenges) — far too many to discuss here. Hence, I will write about three disruptive benefits that represent a paradigm shift in the world of cybersecurity that will be created by AGNs. One: No need for new security tools In the world of cybersecurity as we know it today, every new problem (or family of problems) leads to the creation of a new family of products. New attack vector = new security tools. This is why, while trying to keep up with emerging threats, we continue to buy new security products. The cost of securing businesses from cyberattacks is constantly increasing. As previously mentioned, those new emerging solutions represent incremental improvements in cybersecurity. They retain the status quo, rarely addressing the underlying problem, and do not create the changes necessary to overcome the threat of hackers. AGNs will radically change our current approach toward cybersecurity, rebalancing the power divide between the Internet as a force of good and those seeking to undermine it. The AGN architecture design should allow the AGN provider to upgrade the network operating system and protocol stack both quickly and simply. Obviously, this creates new innovative opportunities, and will also have a tremendous effect on cybersecurity. Here are some examples: A malicious entity seeks to exploit the way an AGN protocol works in order to facilitate a denial of service attack (much like what we see today). In that case, the moment the first attack has occurred and been analyzed, the AGN provider can update the entire network in a matter of seconds, to prevent the same attack scenario from recurring. This removes the need for every organization to buy a new cycle of products, saving billions on cybersecurity expenses worldwide. Someone finds a bug in a tunneling protocol that enables them to gain access to what was otherwise restricted data. Again, a simple update (network security patch) and it is fixed. A new secure GPS-aware packet transportation protocol is needed to support autonomous cars and drones. No problem, come back tomorrow and it will be ready. The ability to mitigate security risks and create new network services breaks the paradigm of new security risks = procurement of a new set of security tools. Through this, one of the biggest challenges facing cybersecurity today can be solved. Two: Network virtualization AGN benefits can include, among many others, all of the benefits that software-defined networking (SDN) aim to introduce, but on a global scale. Benefits such as cost reduction, software-defined packet forwarding, central management and many others. If you are not familiar with SDNs, I urge you to learn more about the concept. One of the most important benefits of SDN, which will also become one of the most important benefits of an AGN, is what is known as simplified virtual management. Though virtual management is already implemented in some organizations (through SDNs), in a global network its benefits are leveraged and ultimately augmented. Virtualization in networking will have a similar effect to the one virtualization has in computing, i.e. completely revolutionizing the paradigm of the existing coupling between hardware and software. Virtualization means the ability to simulate a hardware platform, such as network devices, in software. All of the device’s functionality is simulated by the software, with the ability to operate like a hardware-device solution would. The virtualization of networking will also simplify implementing security tools. With network virtualization, any network architecture can be defined for any given set of devices, while completely ignoring the physical aspects of how those devices actually connect to the network. For example, your “home” network could contain your computer, laptop, mobile phone, car and all of your family member’s devices, with no regard to where they are in the world and without the need to implement any type of VPN solution. Because the allocation of a device to a network is determined by soft switches (application-based switches), you can sit at the other side of the world and still be connected seamlessly to your home network. This is possible because the network architecture is defined by software rather than physical hardware (as opposed to today, where connections to your home network are only possible if you are connected to your home router). You might be able to define any type of network architecture just by drawing and setting it up on a graphical dashboard. Alternatively, you might be able to combine any type of security solution in your network by using simple drag-and-drop gestures. Those tools can include firewalls, IDSs, IPSs, network recording, Anti-DDoS, etc., all of which are virtual appliances. The virtualization of networking will also simplify implementing security tools. If a CISO suspects that someone is already inside his network, and thus he wants to implement a new network inspection solution for a short time, he will just have to add it to the dashboard and, with a click of a button, make all the traffic in the network flow through the new device. No need to define complex routing settings. No need to change vLan ACLs nor firewalls’ rules. Those of us who have faced these problems with traditional networks will really appreciate the change. But for this to fully work, we also will have to change the way we think about networks. No more LANs and WANs. Anyone who wants to benefit from the network virtualization features will have to live by the principle of “every device is connected directly to the AGN” and the AGN will define logical separation to networks. Three: Identified by default The source of many problems we experience with the Internet today can be attributed to the fact that we are trying to supply services that require user identification on a network in which users are anonymous by default. The same network is being used for e-banking services and drug purchasing, viewing medical results and child pornography, social networking and promoting terrorism. No one will use AGNs unless access to the servers and services on the “Internet 1.0” will be enabled and seamless. The AGN provider will be able to implement an identified-by-default network. In this solution, the AGN will authenticate users whenever they are starting to use the network and be able to supply this identity as a service to any application that requires it. In that case, a user might even be able to access his bank without the need to type in a username or password. The federated identity approach is already being serviced by companies such as Facebook and Google. Federated identity means that the user’s single identity is being used by different identity management systems. But not only will users be identified, the hardware devices, or rather the network interfaces, can also be controlled to improve security and trust in the network. How can that be achieved? To connect to an AGN, one must buy a new type of Network Interface Controller (NIC) that supports the AGN protocols stack (obviously, current TCP/IP NICs will not work with AGNs). A wise designing of such an NIC will create a remotely programmable/upgradeable firmware (to support the AGN provider’s ability to upgrade the AGN quickly and remotely). The NIC will also hold a unique private key (NICPK). This key will facilitate tunneling between devices, as well as functioning as a type of license to use the AGN. Based on those NICPKs, stored in all the NICs connected to the AGN, the AGN provider will have the ability to create some kind of Network Access Prevention (NAP) solution that will prevent any unidentified and authorized NIC from communicating within the AGN. Also, device to network allocations will be determined based on the devices’ NICPK. For example, a CIO might define a whitelist of NICPKs that are allowed to access internal resources. And probably the most important feature of using NICPKs is increasing users’ accountability. In the Internet, as we know it today, it is very hard to exercise accountability. Hackers and other malicious entities are getting away with almost anything. The AGN provider will change this, and monitor activities across the entire network. The provider can identify any activity that is not aligned with the network code of conduct and exercise the appropriate sanctions on the user and the device. For example, if a user created a phishing attack, he will be banned from the AGN network (his account will be disabled and his NICPK will be removed from the whitelist of allowed devices). If a user used torrents to download movies illegally, he will be banned from accessing the AGN for a week. If somebody instigated a DDoS attack using many zombie computers (infected computers that are being remotely controlled by a hacker without the users’ knowledge and consent), the AGN provider will prevent those computers from accessing the network until the virus is removed. Related Articles Creating A New Type Of Internet Can you take the Internet out of the Internet of Things? Why IoT Security Is So Critical Another feature of an identified-by-default network is the ability of the AGN provider to control which protocols and which websites are allowed. This gives the AGN provider the freedom to decide whether torrents will be allowed, and whether people are allowed to use TOR-like services. One might think that by creating protocol encapsulation, users can override the AGN provider restrictions, and eventually create things like an AGN-based darknet. But this is not as easy as it might sound, for two major reasons: (A) centralized network management allows relatively easy deep protocol inspection, and (B) the moment the AGN provider learns about this new service, he will be able to completely eliminate it in a very short space of time, thus not allowing any unauthorized services enough time to grow. Moving to an identified-by-design network with a centralized control and high level of accountability is a paradigm shift from the uncontrolled and decentralized Internet that we have today. What will happen to the “old” Internet? We can expect AGN providers to create native services that can only be accessed by the AGN users, and AGNs might eventually even completely replace the old TCP/IP-based Internet. Nevertheless, in the meantime, it is obvious that no one will use AGNs unless access to the servers and services on the “Internet 1.0” will be enabled and seamless. For that to happen, the AGN provider will have to implement a secure gateway. This gateway will be in charge of protocol translation (by stripping and reconstructing or encapsulation) and safe pass. Creating an AGN <-> TCP/IP (or Internet 2.0 to Internet 1.0) gateway, while retaining a high level of security in the AGN, is one of the biggest challenges. AGN providers will have to endure to create an alternative Internet. Conclusion It is becoming harder and harder to secure digital assets. We need disruptive solutions that will create a shift in the balance of things — providing a vital lead over malicious factors. Not only can AGNs do that, but they can also completely alter our approach toward cybersecurity. Some might be concerned about the loss of privacy in an AGN world — and they would be right to be worried. An AGN provider will have infinite power over its user. But the fact that he can, doesn’t necessarily mean that he will. Many times privacy and security are opposite forces, and balancing between them is more an art than science. Sadly, the same goes for privacy and monetization. Nevertheless, if designed right, AGNs can have a real, positive impact on the world of technology, while making the users feel comfortable and secure. Implementation, however, will require a very responsible and privacy-aware AGN provider — one that will not misuse their power. Finding a balance between security and privacy, between centralized control and open network, between monetization and fair use, are all challenges that we will have to face on the way to creating a secure AGN. Homework To be able to create a world in which AGNs are possible, we need to overcome several challenges and initiate several activities: Conducting research to create an effective, secure and upgradable network connectivity model (TCP/IP alternatives). This is a great opportunity for the industry to collaborate with academia. Designing an upgradable AGN NIC with a NICPK. Designing a secure gateway that will allow a safe pass between the AGN new connectivity model and the current Internet. Building an affordable way to create global wireless (or hybrid) networking solutions. Though wireless technologies are slower than wired technologies, the higher networking efficiency that we can achieve with a new connectivity model might, to some extent, bridge this gap. Devising the approach and code of conduct for such an Internet. FEATURED IMAGE: LOCRIFA/SHUTTERSTOCK
Via Riaz Khan, Chris Maylor
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The Creation of Opportunity . - */S.Y\ The Evolution of Leader . A Permanent Creativity give " Things of Perfection", the Application of They born Smart Transformation / New Understanding & Analytical Wisdom. This is New Level of Knowledge.
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Chris Maylor's curator insight, January 19, 5:26 PM
An often-used critical thinking cornerstone is the question:  "Is it still the right decision?".  The network connection problem shared here highlights the need to re-ask the fundamental question, despite the pain (and cost) associated with making a change.
Good discussion and also a great explanation of why, despite being out of IPv4 addresses for most of of a decade, the problem persists.
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10 Creativity Quotes to Kick Off Your Year

10 Creativity Quotes to Kick Off Your Year | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Get inspired to feel inspired.

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The Neuroscience of Strategic Leadership

The Neuroscience of Strategic Leadership | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Neuroscience research shows how to become a better leader.
Via Richard Andrews, Roger Francis, Create Wise Leader
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Why Creativity Matters Most for Entrepreneurs

Why Creativity Matters Most for Entrepreneurs | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Creativity is one of the most important qualities an entrepreneur can have. Here's why it matters and how you can harness it in your business endeavors.

Via Michael Plishka
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"The invention of Gatorade is a perfect example of a creative collision," Cade Miles told BusinessNewsDaily. "It took experts from two seemingly unrelated subjects, nephrology and football, to bring about the completely new category of sports beverages." [Creativity Requires Confidence: How to Get More of Both]  -  */S.Y\  A Multi - Level Creativity is new KIND of TRUST.
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Michael Plishka's curator insight, January 24, 2014 2:08 AM

Great reminders on Creativity

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Cross-Cultural Leadership: How to Create People Alignment

Cross-Cultural Leadership: How to Create People Alignment | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it

Today’s and tomorrow’s leaders are more and more facing cross-cultural challenges caused by globalization, emerging economies and new markets. How to notice differences in cultures? How to understand their impact on people behavior and performance? How to avoid cross-cultural friction and conflict? How to lead people and teams with different cultural backgrounds? How to create successful collaboration and teamwork cross-border? Effectively dealing with cross-cultural challenges like these is rapidly becoming one of the key differentiators for effective leaders and successful companies.

 

The cross-cultural business environment is creating a fundamental mind shift: the ‘soft’ side of business (culture, people, teamwork, etc.) is turning out to be a very ‘hard’ element in creating business success. Mastering the essence of people alignment is a crucial competence for today’s leaders.

 

What differentiates leaders that master the essence of people alignment? Over the years I have worked with many leaders in many different cultures and I’ve identified two important elements in the behavior of successful leaders. First of all, they do not perceive creating people alignment as an activity next to all the other leadership activities, but it is on their mind in everything they do. Secondly, they understand that their ability to align people depends on the extent to which they create personal alignment with respect to the environment where they operate.

 

Personal alignment is about understanding yourself. It is about being in balance with the inter-cultural environment where you find yourself. It is about being able to explain and show others where you stand within this environment of cultural differences and why. It creates trust, transparency, and confidence. The impact of a lack of personal alignment on your leadership behavior and on the organization is direct and significant. Creating people alignment starts with having a sufficient level of personal alignment. Especially in cross-cultural environments personal alignment can be challenged easily. Successful leaders are aware when personal misalignment occurs, and they pay special attention to fixing it.

 

How can you spot potential areas of personal misalignment in cross-cultural environments? How to create your personal ‘leadership compass’ that guides you to potential weak spots in your personal alignment? The following questions might help you in building your compass:

 

What are my core qualities? How do I use these in my work as a leader? How do they fit the inter-cultural challenges that I face? How do they support my cross-cultural effectiveness?


What are my most important values that define who I am and how I act as a leader? How do I express these values as a leader? (Focus on the 3-5 most important values)


How do my values fit the company’s vision, mission, and strategy? Where do I feel misalignment?


How do my values fit the corporate culture and subcultures? What cross-cultural differences do I perceive? How do they make me feel? What is the effect on my behavior?


Do I understand the cross-cultural differences that I experience? How can I increase my understanding? How can I increase other’s understanding of my perception and observations?


What qualities do I want to improve or develop to increase my cross-cultural effectiveness? How could people in my environment support me with this (peers, colleagues, team members, mentors, coaches)?


How do you create alignment in cross-cultural environments? How is your level of personal alignment? What questions would you add to the list above? Share your ideas and thoughts and join us in the discussion.

 

The Part 2 of this series will talk about a next important level of cross-cultural alignment: team alignment...


Via Thibaud Guymard
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The cross-cultural business environment is creating a fundamental mind shift: the ‘soft’ side of business (culture, people, teamwork, etc.) is turning out to be a very ‘hard’ element in creating business success. Mastering the essence of people alignment is a crucial competence for today’s leaders.  -  */S.Y\  How measure Creativity? - */S.Y\ Need Index of Creativity. This is Interpersonal Gradient of Growth for your Creativity .
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Connecting Creativity to Understanding

Connecting Creativity to Understanding | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it

February 2013 | Volume 70 | Number 5
Creativity Now! Pages 65-70

Connecting Creativity to Understanding

Lois Hetland

Knowledge is crucial—but it's not enough to prepare students for productive citizenship in a complex, fast-paced, and rapidly changing world.

Students walk into their 7th grade history classroom where they've been studying the colonial period in America. But what they see in class today looks more like an art studio than a place for research. Desks and chairs have been pushed aside, and a sheet covers a lumpy mound in the center of the room. Colored pencils, oil pastels, watercolors, and art papers are arrayed on the floor, like place settings around a centerpiece. As students enter, their teacher invites them to find a spot where they'll be comfortable for 45 minutes, because once class begins, they won't be able to move—not even to sharpen a pencil or go to the bathroom.

Once they're settled in, the teacher gives an intentionally vague directive:

 

Under this sheet is a group of objects that go together somehow. For the next 45 minutes, while staying in your place and not talking, your job is to represent what you see, using the materials at your place. How you do that is up to you.

 

The teacher removes the sheet, turns on music, and begins timing.

I used this experience to develop students' appreciation of perspective in historical texts. The still life hidden beneath the sheet was stacked on stools and tables and was covered by a patterned tablecloth. It was composed of ingredients for apple crisp—apples, a lemon, butter, oats, cinnamon, and sugar—as well as a recipe card and baking equipment, such as measuring cups, a pan, spatulas, and mixing bowls. But the students could only see the side of the mountain of objects that faced them (the recipe card, for example, could only be seen from two or three spots), and they didn't know that the mound was composed of all the elements needed to make apple crisp.

Students had to interpret what they were seeing, as people do when they observe a historical event. Observers see an event unfolding around them, but they have only partial knowledge of what it means. They may only see what's happening near them, get sidetracked by irrelevant details, or be too close to understand the event in full.

In the same way, students, with their partial knowledge and limited viewpoints, had to choose what to represent and how. Rather than assuming that I wanted them to depict the entire array of objects (a default assumption common in beginning drawers), they had to decide what "represent what you see" meant to them.

One student drew a single apple; one focused on the pattern of the tablecloth; one drew an apple pie, choosing to represent the still life as its implied finished product. Later, the students compared their work with that of their peers, viewing the artifacts as documents describing something that happened on this day in this place—as primary sources.

As students reflected together about their drawings, they began to see primary documents and historical texts anew. Texts didn't tell the "truth"; instead, they told stories from unique "positioned" points of view. These primary documents became pieces in a puzzle. Students experienced how all interpretations are inherently biased and can only be understood in the context of those who created them. One or another of my former students occasionally finds me and tells me that the subject "history" changed for them that day—from memorizing dates and names to creating and interpreting stories of the past on the basis of careful comparison of multiple documents.

Educating—For What?

Are these students developing new ways of thinking about and understanding history? Are they acquiring creativity of the sort worth developing, either in general or for budding historians—and who decides? These questions go to the heart of what education is all about.

Let's begin by tackling the term itself. Creativity can be a confusing topic because people address many different ideas with this single word. Lately, "the creative economy" is in common parlance, but creativity traditionally evokes other associations, including creative genius, creative insight, creative classrooms, or references to God the creator. The broad use of the term makes it difficult to focus conversation about creativity as it relates to schooling.

Thankfully, Kozbelt, Beghetto, and Runco (2010) summarized research on creativity and identified four ways it's been studied—in terms of creative products (the iPhone or Google); persons (Steve Jobs or Maya Lin); processes (the collaborative, iterative process of design thinking); and places (Silicon Valley or an artist's studio). My own interest in an education for creativity centers on three of these four ways: on nurturing creative persons through creative processes in creative places.

Tying such an education to a creative economy is fine with me, as long as the tail doesn't wag the dog. Education's purpose is not just to produce workers, even though it used to be; many schools were designed during the Industrial Revolution to fill factory jobs and keep workers' children off the streets. But schools have the potential to serve as incubators for creative and ethical people who can shape our futures, such as the "good workers" whom Gardner, Csikszentmihalyi, and Damon (2001) describe in their work.

There's a big difference between educating for creativity and educating students for factory work. It's a serious endeavor to shift the weight of schooling's work-related legacy and reframe schools as places to aim for the higher cognitive processes of creative and critical thinking.

Defining Understanding

Schools often seem to default to a vision of education as knowledge acquisition, which the fervor for testing has only exacerbated; students "succeed" when they can reproduce knowledge on demand from memory. No one should belittle the importance of knowledge—it's an essential component of wisdom and raw material for constructing what society needs and values. But if education focuses primarily on knowledge acquisition, students are unlikely to learn to behave as democratic citizens must—that is, as active, informed, ethical participants in shaping our collective futures.

If students are to emerge from their educations with those qualities, then we must shift away from knowledge acquisition as the measure of success. But should we move toward educating for creativity—or something else?

From 1989 to 1996, Project Zero and the Harvard Graduate School of Education conducted research around the development of disciplinary understanding as education's goal, a legacy from Jerome Bruner's work from the 1950s (Bruner, 2006). The definition of understanding developed in that project leads us one step closer to educating for creativity.

Understanding and Performance

Understanding—defined by this research as performance—is the capacity to use what you know flexibly in response to novel circumstances (Blythe & Associates, 1998; Wiske, 1998). That definition harbors two advantages over knowledge acquisition as education's goal. First, understanding so defined activates knowledge. For example, history is not just historical facts—dates, sequences, names, and events—but, rather, a set of lenses for interpreting multiple and complex causes and effects to explain past and present conditions. Second, by aiming schooling toward understanding, learning takes on the character of being for something. Students must learn to use knowledge to achieve an intention—for instance, to address the challenges of an unknown future in a time of rapid change.

The researchers found that the performance view of understanding is what most people mean when they say they really understand something. Although it's easy to lapse into a sense that understanding is something to have rather than something to do, genuine understanding suggests a more dynamic set of higher-order relationships with the world.

Understanding and Thinking Dispositions

Understanding and thinking are closely tied. Thought builds understanding—and people can aim thinking at some intention. But when the researchers looked at previous findings about skill in thinking, the findings showed that teaching thinking skills, such as logical approaches to problem solving, is not enough to create understanding; skills taught in isolation are as inert as their knowledge-fragment cousins. Students who learned such approaches or strategies rarely used them when confronted with unfamiliar challenges. There's a transfer problem—a problem of application to novel circumstances.

In response, Perkins and colleagues developed the idea of thinking dispositions (Perkins, Jay, & Tishman, 1993; Tishman, Jay, & Perkins, 1993). Skill in thinking needs to be tied to attitudes that motivate and connect thinking to purpose. Otherwise, skill spins its wheels without going anywhere. So, to educate for understanding, educators have to nurture two other elements of dispositions beyond skill: inclination—the drive, need, or passion that pushes people to use their skills—and alertness—the sensitivity, awareness, or recognition of connections among the bits of information that constantly stream past us.

That begins to sound something like creativity, does it not? Understanding, in the performance sense, uses knowledge for a novel purpose, with thinking dispositions as the engine and fuel for getting there. Perhaps educating for understanding is educating for creativity?

Understanding vs. Creativity

As I began pondering connections between understanding and creativity, I talked with David Perkins about it. "Creativity," Perkins said, "is transgressive." On the other hand, understanding—that is, performed understanding using disciplinary knowledge and thinking dispositions—is what experts do within accepted domain boundaries.

Developing such expertise and understanding in the various domains is certainly a rigorous and worthy goal for education. But that's not educating for creativity. Educating for understanding doesn't expect or require boundary breaking; it merely requires the use of knowledge and skills in new situations.

For example, when addressing the problem of slow elevators in tall buildings, an expert (and expensive) solution might involve understanding the mechanisms that move the cars to improve their efficiency. But by breaking the boundaries of the problem and seeing it not as an engineering problem but rather as a perception problem, we might come up with the solution of installing mirrors outside the elevators. People tend to be distracted by their own reflections and, as a result, may not even notice how long they have to wait for the car to arrive.

Creativity, at its core, pushes against the edges of the known and bursts open new perspectives, shifting the sense of what is possible or even real. I am reminded of the creative legacies of Paulo Freire (1996, 2005) and bell hooks (1994), who envisioned transforming education's role to a trangressive intent: to oppose oppression and move toward liberation. Creativity makes new things and makes old things new—new problems, new solutions, new realities—things not conceived before. It is, as Perkins (1981) defined, "adaptive novelty."

In today's world of instantaneous global communication and change, the unknown is always showing up. Schools that aim to prepare students for that world educate students to respond wisely in the face of the unfamiliar and new.

Enter the Studio Habits of Mind

Although the arts are in no way the sole repository of creative practices, they are a rich archive of all four categories of creativity—processes, persons, places, and products—that can be mined to educate for creativity in any subject area. My research with colleagues from Project Zero (Hetland, Winner, Veenema, & Sheridan, 2007) produced a representation of the artistic mind that we call the Studio Habits of Mind. These eight studio habits that artists engage in are to (1) Develop Craft, (2) Engage and Persist, (3) Envision, (4) Express, (5) Observe, (6) Reflect, (7) Stretch and Explore, and (8) Understand Art Worlds. Artists and educators have used these eight habits across all disciplines, most recently in conjunction with the Common Core State Standards.1 

All the studio habits work together. For example, take Stretch and Explore, one of the habits most readily associated with creativity. We define Stretch and Explore as "learning to reach beyond one's capacities, to explore playfully without a preconceived plan, and to embrace the opportunity to learn from mistakes and accidents" (Hetland et al., 2007, p. 6). Combined with Develop Craft, for example, which focuses on learning to use tools and materials, Stretch and Explore highlights playful exploration of implements and mediums. When students combine this habit with Engage and Persist, they stretch to find work they're passionate about and novel ways to persist in its resolution.

Stretch and Explore: A Closer Look

To see how the lens of Studio Habits highlights creative practices—and to clarify what this would look like in the classroom—let's consider three elements of Stretch and Explore—play, learning from mistakes, and embracing opportunity and taking risks.

Play

Exploring playfully emphasizes the importance of learning experiences that encourage what may appear as oxymoronic—habitual divergent thinking. Building in low-stakes and low-judgment formats frees students to playfully explore by enabling them to have fun, wonder, follow feelings, improvise, and work from intuition.

The opening example of the history lesson drew on the playful element of Stretch and Explore by bringing unfamiliar materials into the history classroom (paints, colored pencils, food, baking equipment); removing some expected materials (books, desks); setting up a mystery or game with new rules ("I'll sharpen your pencil for you—but you have to stay in your place"; "The objects go together somehow"); and using open-ended directions ("Represent what you see").

It's easy to use play as a way to regenerate enthusiasm for inquiry in any subject with students of any age. I've seen kindergartners play with "how many ways" they can alter cardboard in an art class, high school students play with mirrors and lenses in "what if" scenarios in science classes, and middle school students role-play dialogues around the qualities of literary characters. In museums, too, I've seen people role-playing with a partner, with one speaking as the viewer of the work and the other speaking from the work's point of view. Playful! When we relax, we see novel possibilities to explore and develop.

Learning from Mistakes

Ask a student about making a mistake, and he or she is likely to look silently at the floor. Mistakes in school are viewed as shameful and to be avoided—people might think you're dumb.

But in the arts, mistakes have an entirely different role. First, artists know that mistakes are inevitable. How can people avoid error when they're pushing deliberately beyond what they know and can do? Second, mistakes are valuable. Reflecting on mistakes often leads to useful insights that signal what went wrong and that suggest a different, more effective, approach. For example, when drawing a face, a student might get the proportions wrong and then notice that when one side of the face is larger, the face appears to turn to the side. A mistake in representation then becomes a tool for modeling expression by using distortion deliberatively.

Finally, mistakes are a potential source of ideas for new projects and investigations. A mistake may expose unusual juxtapositions, surprising metaphors, or tacit knowledge. For instance, when making a collage, an artist noticed that a magazine photo of meat looked like the texture of wood. She then used images of food to construct a series of architectural interiors in collage that were puns about consumption.

In the apple crisp lesson, "mistakes" were the norm. Remember that student who drew a single apple? Or the one who focused on the pattern of the tablecloth? These works showed what each student saw and chose to draw from his or her perspective; a traditional drawing class might consider these representations as errors, as though the task were to accurately depict the entire arrangement. Some students worried about "not being able to draw," but when we shared the works, which were unfinished (further lowering the stakes), the students got to say what they were trying to do and point out places they felt good about and areas that "bugged them." Success wasn't about drawing—it was about gaining insight into history through an artistic game.

"Make 50 visual art mistakes": This is what John Crowe, a professor at the Massachusetts College of Art and Design, tells students to do in his studio course. This "50 losers" assignment gives students power over error and freedom to explore without worry. What happens? They play! After giving students plenty of time to follow that direction, Professor Crowe extends the challenge: "Now, elevate one of these mistakes to the level of art."

For example, when cutting wood imprecisely with various tools, an artist noticed how interesting the random chunks of wood were that had fallen to the floor. He combined selected scraps into a prototype for what became a line of beautiful table lamps in a rough, Japanese aesthetic. Students come to use error as opportunity; it gives them permission to explore broadly and without negative self-judgment.

Embracing Opportunity and Taking Risks

Combining play and the value of error leads to greater confidence in approaching problems without fear and taking the risks needed in the search for new ideas. Artists often embrace risk by setting up constraints on their skill, such as using brushes attached to three-foot dowels or mixing weeds or chunks of wood into their clay. This habit of building in chance and randomness emerges from a confidence that emphasizes serendipity and recognizes that previously developed skill may hold back exploration and that using only proven methods may limit opportunities. Artists know there's usually time to refine their work, so the risk isn't really dangerous. Taking a chance is safe when the work is held lightly, tossed about, investigated freely—and not seen as precious or fragile.

The apple crisp lesson used this element of Stretch and Explore by assigning the risk: It didn't matter what students could or couldn't do; they just had to take on the chance and represent what they saw. No, this work wasn't graded. Students had to engage and do something. Then we used the experience to learn from the effort.

Similarly, artists may spend hours on a drawing and then cut it up into parts that they reassemble as another work. Writing teachers may have students cut out descriptions of characters, objects, or settings from early drafts to combine in odd juxtapositions or metaphors that catalyze new insights.

It's also a risk to show work to peers or teachers, especially before it's completed. But public critique is common practice for artists. Mid-process critiques might ask others to describe what they see in the emerging work while the artist says nothing and takes notes to reflect on later. Ultimately, exhibiting a finished work to the public—to classmates, online, on a city street, in a gallery, on the radio, in a newspaper or publication—provides a sense of letting the work go to live its own life, separating the maker from the made and allowing a more objective appraisal of the work's quality. Such practices must not be limited to art classes.

The Ultimate Exploration

We turn, finally, to the idea of transgression. That's the ultimate exploration and stretch—to push past what we know to be quality, to be right or worthy, to trample those boundaries in search of new connections, possibilities, insights, and perspectives.

The apple crisp lesson modeled thinking outside the boundaries of what students thought of as history. It transgressed the discipline, but it wasn't a revolution—just a nudge beyond the expected. In contrast, the works of Paulo Friere and bell hooks lean toward a fundamental transformation of schooling as the mechanism for reforming society's inequities. So the transgression of creativity can be as simple as pushing the desks and chairs aside, having students draw in a history class, and suggesting that the textbook may not be the final word or that "truth" is not the goal of history, but rather an interpretation based on evidence. Or it can be as profound as turning education inside out.

Whichever tack toward transgression educators take, we need to help students recognize that what's now the rule was previously invented by other people and that they, the students, can begin to participate in the process of creation themselves, practicing how to shape their own destinies. And that's what an education for creativity is for—creating the creators who, from the present and past, make the future.

References

Blythe, T., & Associates. (1998). The teaching for understanding guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bruner, J. M. (2006). In search of pedagogy: Volume I. The selected works of Jerome S. Bruner. London: Routledge.

Freire, P. (1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Penquin.

Freire, P. (2005). Education for critical consciousness. New York: Continuum.

Gardner, H., Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Damon, W. (2001). Good work: When excellence and ethics meet. New York: Basic Books.

Hetland, L., Winner, E., Veenema, S., & Sheridan, K. (2007). Studio thinking: The real benefits of visual arts education. New York: Teachers College Press.

hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education is the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge.

Kozbelt, A., Beghetto, R., & Runco, M. (2010). Theories of creativity. In J. C. Kaufman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 20–47). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Perkins, D. N. (1981). The mind's best work. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Perkins, D. N., Jay, E., & Tishman, S. (1993). Beyond abilities: A dispositional theory of thinking. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 39(1), 1–21.

Tishman, S., Jay, E., & Perkins, D. N. (1993). Teaching thinking dispositions: From transmission to enculturation. Theory into Practice, 32(3), 147–153.

Wiske, M. S. (Ed.). (1998). Teaching for understanding: Linking research with practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


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Sergey Yatsenko's insight:
Creativity makes new things and makes old things new—new problems, new solutions, new realities—things not conceived before. It is, as Perkins (1981) defined, "adaptive novelty."  -  */S.Y\  A Permanent Creativity give " Things of Perfection", the Application of They born Smart Transformation / New Understanding & Analytical Wisdom. This is New Level of Knowledge.
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Developing skills in written communication

Developing skills in written communication | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it

“Ohe pen is mightier than the sword,” wrote a philosopher centuries back, emphasizing the power of written communication. The ability to communicate does not begin and end with mere oral communication. For an average man, communication is mostly limited to casual banter and fails to make foray into the written genre.

Yet, written communication could not be more relevant in today’s technology-driven and shrunken world. The real trouble arises when the pendulum swings to written communication. For unlike in oral communication, written communication demands formal language, conformity to recognised patterns and some level of proficiency in the rudiments of the language. The difficulties involved are deterrents to developing skills in written communication. Even so, getting the hang of effectively articulating thoughts and ideas  is a forte that can unlock the door to a world of greater understanding.

Writing most often does not get the prominence it ought to in a common man’s schedule. Learning and acquiring knowledge from volumes of tomes are limited to the profound subjects of math, science and social studies. Language and its many functions, including writing skills, thus pale in comparison to the importance of other subjects.


This bias acts as a deterrent in the development of effective writing. When writing thus is not given the due significance it deserves, this skill cannot be improved upon. Just as in any other art, with writing too, only practice can make a man perfect. Failure to hone skills in writing coupled with the general apathy, act as a huge gap in getting proficient in the art of written communication.

Again unlike other subjects, writing involves a creative bent. Creativity is often perceived as something that is reserved for a select few. Spending time in this creative area of writing is seldom exercised, resulting in the common man’s inertia to kick start his adventures into the realm of writing.

If all these factors are not reasons enough to procrastinate to dive into the world of words, new age communication is a stumbling block in excelling at the written language. SMS language, prevalence of short and laconic comments on social media, combined with the long forgotten art of writing letters and post cards through the snail mail, augment the discouraging scenario of poor progress in written communication.


Via Charles Tiayon
Sergey Yatsenko's insight:
Manifold are the benefits of learning to put in writing the many thought processes as they occur in our mind. Written communication is an exceptional tool available in mass media.  -  */S.Y\  Creative Reflection determine your Capacity for Rethinking with New Mindset.
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Charles Tiayon's curator insight, September 4, 2014 5:54 AM

“Ohe pen is mightier than the sword,” wrote a philosopher centuries back, emphasizing the power of written communication. The ability to communicate does not begin and end with mere oral communication. For an average man, communication is mostly limited to casual banter and fails to make foray into the written genre.

Yet, written communication could not be more relevant in today’s technology-driven and shrunken world. The real trouble arises when the pendulum swings to written communication. For unlike in oral communication, written communication demands formal language, conformity to recognised patterns and some level of proficiency in the rudiments of the language. The difficulties involved are deterrents to developing skills in written communication. Even so, getting the hang of effectively articulating thoughts and ideas  is a forte that can unlock the door to a world of greater understanding.

Writing most often does not get the prominence it ought to in a common man’s schedule. Learning and acquiring knowledge from volumes of tomes are limited to the profound subjects of math, science and social studies. Language and its many functions, including writing skills, thus pale in comparison to the importance of other subjects.


This bias acts as a deterrent in the development of effective writing. When writing thus is not given the due significance it deserves, this skill cannot be improved upon. Just as in any other art, with writing too, only practice can make a man perfect. Failure to hone skills in writing coupled with the general apathy, act as a huge gap in getting proficient in the art of written communication.

Again unlike other subjects, writing involves a creative bent. Creativity is often perceived as something that is reserved for a select few. Spending time in this creative area of writing is seldom exercised, resulting in the common man’s inertia to kick start his adventures into the realm of writing.

If all these factors are not reasons enough to procrastinate to dive into the world of words, new age communication is a stumbling block in excelling at the written language. SMS language, prevalence of short and laconic comments on social media, combined with the long forgotten art of writing letters and post cards through the snail mail, augment the discouraging scenario of poor progress in written communication.

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Assessing Creativity

February 2013 | Volume 70 | Number 5
Creativity Now! Pages 28-34

 

Assessing Creativity--Susan M. Brookhart

 

 

We can assess creativity—and, in the process, help students become more creative.

Fifth graders were busy writing acrostic poems on small posters. One girl wrote a school spirit poem, with the first letter of each line spelling out the school name: S for "super," N for "nice," and so on. She even drew a picture of a bobcat (pictures were not required) that was a spot-on replication of the school mascot. A boy wrote an acrostic poem with the first letter of each line spelling out his name: A for "agressive" (unfortunately spelled incorrectly); N for "nutty"; and so on. No picture.

So what kind of feedback did the teacher give? Her comments gave students the impression that the girl's poem was perfect and that the boy's poem was not so good, mostly because of that one misspelled word and the fact that his lines sloped downward on the poster.

This assignment was a giant missed opportunity for both students. The girl's work was a skillful replication of things she'd seen before. All the words were simple, the school spirit theme was a common one, and the point of her drawing was to duplicate the school mascot. She needed to know that her work was proficient—but she also needed to be challenged to work with more originality when writing poems. She only received half that feedback.

The boy's work was more original. Although the poem was only five lines long, it gave readers a real sense of who he was—or, at least, how he saw himself. He needed to know that he had used a prescribed format creatively—but he also needed to be challenged to check his spelling and use a ruler to make straight lines of text on posters. He, too, only received half that feedback.

What was missing in the teacher's feedback is easy to diagnose—her criteria for success were too limited—but it's harder to put right. Can creativity be an assessment category? If so, how do you handle it? Surely you wouldn't downgrade the girl's perfectly good poem, beautifully and dutifully written and presented.

Here's how to assess and give feedback about creativity and, in the process, help students become more creative in their work.

What Is Creativity?

Creativity is a simple concept that can be difficult to get your head around. In its most basic sense, creative means "original and of high quality" (Perkins, 1981, p. 6). The girl's school spirit poem was of high quality, but it was workmanlike and derivative. The boy's self-analysis poem was original, and the poetic composition and word choice were fine; he just needed to attend to the quality of the mechanics. Of course, a poem that is uninterpretable or meaningless, no matter how original, can't be creative.

What does it look like when schoolwork is original and of high quality? Probably the foremost characteristic of creative students is that they put things together in new ways (Brookhart, 2010). For example, while writing a poem about a sunset, a student who observes that moment when the sunset looks very much like a sunrise and makes the connection to other endings that can also foreshadow beginnings is more creative than a student who describes that moment as "red and fiery."

Students who are able to put things together in new ways can observe things others might miss, construct more novel products, give more novel performances, use more unusual or unconventional imagery to make points, observe ordinary things and find in them an area to wonder about or a problem to solve, and the like.

Not all schoolwork, even performance assessments, supports this sort of thinking. Before you can assess creativity, you need to make sure that the tasks you set for students are conducive to creativity.

Stimulating Creative Thinking

Myriad opportunities for fostering creativity are right under our noses in school, because learning is a generative act. However, what's missing in many classrooms is deliberately noticing and naming opportunities for creativity when they occur, giving feedback on the creative process, and teaching students that creativity is a valued quality.

Brainstorming in any subject can be a creative activity. Elementary teachers who ask students to begin the writing process with a graphic organizer, list, or outline can give feedback on the originality of the ideas as well as their suitability for the writing assignment. For example, an elementary teacher might ask students to list several farm animals, imagine a funny situation that might happen to each, and then pick one animal and write a story about it.

Science teachers who have students brainstorm a list of hypotheses to test can give feedback on the originality of ideas as well as their suitability for the experiment that the students will design. For example, a teacher might mention that her coffee cools too quickly in the cup and then ask students to brainstorm a list of things that might slow down the cooling process, write a hypothesis about each one, and design an experiment to test one hypothesis.

Assignments that require students to produce new ideas or reorganize existing ideas in a new way are likely to foster student creativity. In mathematics, asking students to identify a problem for which multiplication would be useful in finding the solution requires more creativity from them than giving students a multiplication word problem to solve. Similarly, in music, an assignment in which students write an original melody requires more creativity than one in which they analyze a preexisting melody.

Assignments that require students to put two things together are also likely to promote creativity. For example, in English language arts, asking students to write or speak about how The Adventures of Tom Sawyer would have been different had Huckleberry Finn been the main character sparks more creativity than asking students to discuss the character of Tom Sawyer. In social studies, asking students how the events that led up to World War I might be handled if they happened today fosters more creativity than asking students to discuss the causes of World War I.

Students will still exhibit a range of originality and quality in their work, even in response to these more creative prompts. Teachers can give feedback on both of these aspects of the work.

Sometimes teachers and students think that any assignment that allows student choice is conducive to creativity. Although that may be true in general, only assignments that allow student choice in matters related to what the student is supposed to learn develop student creativity in the area under study. For example, if you ask students to compare characters in two novels and allow them to choose the characters or novels, they have the opportunity to develop creativity in their approach to literary criticism. However, if you ask students to compare two specified characters and just give them choices about whether they want to write an essay, give a speech, or write a song, students will not have that opportunity.

Criteria for Creativity

Creativity is not a synonym for clever, humorous, artistically pleasing, enthusiastic, or persuasive. Those are all great qualities that we can assess in their own right, but we shouldn't confuse them with creativity. As early childhood educator Lilian Katz once railed, "Creativity is not animals with long eyelashes!"

Rather, criteria for creativity should match what we expect in creative work: originality and high quality. Creative students

Recognize the importance of a deep knowledge base and continually work to learn new things.Are open to new ideas and actively seek them out.Find source material in a wide variety of media, people, and events.Organize and reorganize ideas into different categories or combinations and then evaluate whether the results are interesting, new, or helpful.Use trial and error when they are unsure how to proceed, viewing failure as an opportunity to learn. (Brookhart, 2010, pp. 128–129)

 

The first four characteristics lead to qualities in the work that we can observe, assess, and provide feedback on. For example, are the source materials varied? Are ideas organized in a fresh way and uniquely suited to the problem or product? The last characteristic—using trial and error—is about the student's approach to learning and may or may not show itself in the finished work.

A Rubric for Creativity

If all of these first four characteristics are in play in an assignment, then a rubric like the one in Figure 1 (p. 31) may support teachers and students in assessing creativity (Brookhart, 2013). The rubric describes four levels of creativity—very creative, creative, ordinary/routine, and imitative—in four different areas—variety of ideas, variety of sources, novelty of idea combinations, and novelty of communication.

Read more: http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb13/vol70/num05/Assessing-Creativity.aspx


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Assessing Creativity  -   */S.Y\   How measure Creativity? - */S.Y\ Need Index of Creativity. This is Interpersonal Gradient of Growth for your Creativity .
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3 Spot-On Social Media Campaigns Every Brand Can Learn From

3 Spot-On Social Media Campaigns Every Brand Can Learn From | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
These three social media campaigns made waves on the social web -- which is why they're the three picks for the Mashies' agency of the year.

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Creating a killer social media campaign isn't about the support of a great brand or having the right assets. It's about striking the delicate balance of perfect timing, relevant messaging and the right audience.  -   New Media Symbiosis. This is the Positive Effect of Interaction in Social Media / Facebook, Twitter, Scoop.it, LinkedIn, About me, SlideShare, Viadeo, .../.
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What to Do About Mediocrity on Your Team

What to Do About Mediocrity on Your Team | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Four ways to raise the bar.

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Use concrete measures as influence. - */S.Y\ Leadership is Capacity of Decoding the existent Reality.
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THE *OFFICIAL ANDREASCY*'s curator insight, April 21, 7:30 AM

Four leadership practices that lead to performance excellence.

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Social Media Analytics: Sentiment Analysis

Social Media Analytics: Sentiment Analysis | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it

" I talked a little about sentiment analysis earlier. Sentiment analysis mainly tracks the prevailing opinion of your brand and it’s most effective for larger brands, especially consumer brands. For smaller brands, there just aren’t enough mentions of your brand to make sentiment analysis very insightful. For small brands, scouring specific websites, such as Yelp, EOpinions, and other places likely provides more insights regarding prevailing opinions about your brand".


Read more at http://www.business2community.com/social-media/social-media-analytics-sentiment-analysis-0537934


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Social Media Analytics: Sentiment Analysis  -  */S.Y\  Courage is the Positive Result of Your Creative Ability. 
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María Dolores Díaz Noguera's curator insight, August 26, 2013 6:46 AM

Analizar los sentimientos es importante.

Edward Phiri's comment, August 28, 2013 7:30 AM
Excellent relevant type of monitoring and evaluation tool
Francisco Pontes Estevan's comment, August 28, 2013 7:36 AM
Si que lo es y ademas muy funcional.
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Predictive Analytics in Human Resources - Analytics in HR

Predictive Analytics in Human Resources - Analytics in HR | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Predictive analytics in human resources: this article explains what HR predictive analytics are and illustrates them using 7 HR-related business cases.
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The Science Behind the Power of Storytelling

The Science Behind the Power of Storytelling | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
a skilled storyteller can actually compel others to act by manipulating their emotions.

Via Simon Staffans
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Simon Staffans's curator insight, November 11, 2016 8:44 AM
"A skilled storyteller can actually compel others to act by manipulating their emotions."
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Resilience Through Mindful Leadership

Resilience Through Mindful Leadership | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it

The movement to develop mindful leaders in business is at a tipping point, as interest from corporations, educational institutions and the media continues to grow. As Arianna Huffington recently pointed out on CNBC's Squawk Box: "The tipping point was very evident at the World Economic Forum in Davos this past January, with many oversold sessions on the topic and meditation being taught by leading practitioners like Matthieu Ricard, PhD (a Buddhist monk who is the Dalai Lama's scientific advisor)." I witnessed this personally by leading a sold-out Davos dinner on the topic and participating in two other sessions on "Mindful Leadership."

What's causing this dramatic shift in our consciousness about what it takes today to be an effective leader? It starts with the changes taking place in the world. We live in an era of globalization and rapid technological change that is creating volatility, uncertainty, chaos and ambiguity. (VUCA is the acronym created by the U.S. Military Academy to describe the world of the 21st century.) Its impact is compounded by the rapidly changing job market and the new 24x7 communications world.

This creates stress for executives and the institutions they lead. For institutions, the velocity of the business cycle and risks of the multi-polar global environment create instability. For individuals, the volatility creates more emotional ups and downs and can cause us to lose confidence. Amid such volatility, a reserve of mental and physical energy is required to be resilient.

As I wrote in my 2009 book, Seven Lessons for Leading in Crisis, resilience is the combination of heartiness, toughness and buoyancy of spirit. These qualities are necessary for leaders to persevere through struggling moments, bounce back from adversity and adapt to external stress.

Resilience in Action

Many leading corporations -- Google, General Mills, Aetna, Genentech, Target, and Cargill, for example -- have created mindful leadership programs to build resilience in their employees. Google's and General Mills' programs are widespread through their employee base. Aetna's research on meditation and yoga has established their benefits for health and well-being.

To develop the new military leaders needed for a VUCA world, West Point has also created multiple training programs on resilience. These include spiritual fitness as well as master resilience training programs to bolster mental toughness, cultivate strong relationships and build on one's strengths -- all qualities of mindful leaders. Martin E.P. Seligman's Harvard Business Review article, "Building Resilience," summarizes these initiatives.

Alan Mulally's turnaround at the Ford Motor Company illustrates the value of resilience. He became CEO of Ford in 2006 and faced week after week of challenging news about the business. As the financial crisis peaked, Ford's very existence was at risk. As documented in Bryce Hoffman's American Icon, Mulally maintained an upbeat, positive spirit and can-do attitude that transformed Ford. He applauded those who offered bad news and encouraged the organization to view setbacks as learning opportunities en route to success.

The Mindful Leader

The best way to become more resilient is to develop oneself into a calm, compassionate and adaptable Mindful Leader. How does one become mindful? In 2011, I presented my ideas on authentic leadership to the Dalai Lama and asked him that question. He stressed the importance of creating daily mindful practices.

Two practices have increased my resilience and shaped my leadership. The first is meditation, which I began in 1975, twenty minutes twice a day. This has been the single best thing to improve my effectiveness and sense of well-being. Meditation enables me to forget less important events and focus with clarity on significant issues. My most creative ideas come out of meditation. In addition, meditation increases my energy level and enables me to be more compassionate toward others.

Meditation certainly isn't the only way to become mindful. Other regular practices include prayer, journaling, intimate discussions and solitary exercises like jogging, hiking and swimming. The important thing is to have some form of introspective practice that enables you to slow down your mind and reflect on what is important.

Second, I have been meeting weekly since 1975 with a group of men to discuss our beliefs and life experiences. We serve as mirrors for each other, allowing us to maintain equilibrium under pressure and understand how we are perceived by others. In addition, my wife and I formed a couples group of eight people in 1983 that meets monthly for personal discussions. The format of these groups is similar to the Young President Organization's Forum and the small, intimate groups described in my book, True North Groups.

Being Mindful Makes You a Better Leader

In my experience, mindful people make much better leaders than frenetic, aggressive ones. They understand their reactions to stress and crises, and understand their impact on others. They are far better at inspiring people to take on greater responsibilities and at aligning them around common missions and values. They are better at focusing and are more effective at delegating work with closed-loop follow-up. As a result, people follow their mindful approach, and their organizations outperform others over the long-run.

There is no cost to becoming mindful, and it makes far better use of your time. That's why it's catching on so rapidly. The tipping point is indeed here.

Bill George is professor of management practice at Harvard Business School and author of True North and Authentic Leadership. He is the former chair and CEO of Medtronic. Read more at www.BillGeorge.org, or follow him on Twitter @Bill_George.

   

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Karine Allouche's curator insight, December 3, 2014 12:49 PM

We live in an era of globalization and rapid technological change that is creating volatility, uncertainty, chaos and ambiguity. A turnaround is even adding to this stress - how to lead in this time?

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Switzerland: a pirate’s paradise? - SWI swissinfo.ch

Switzerland: a pirate’s paradise? - SWI swissinfo.ch | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Switzerland's relatively lenient laws on downloading copyrighted material have resulted in it being placed on a US blacklist.
Via Monica S Mcfeeters
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Creativity and the Pursuit of Excellence

Creativity and the Pursuit of Excellence | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
In this lecture we investigate Richard Taylor's idea, building on the thought of Aristotle, that personal excellence is best attained through the cultivation of one's capacity for creativity.

Via Creativity For Life
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What  is  Creativity ?   -   */S.Y\  A Permanent Creativity as Index of High - Potential Talent  and  Growth  for  SME's .
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4 Archetypes of Top Social Media Influencers

4 Archetypes of Top Social Media Influencers | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Did you ever wonder what traits are associated with the top influencers in your industry? An examination of the top social media influencers led to the following 4 archetypes.  Attributes of Social...

Via Dr. Susan Bainbridge
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*/S.Y\ Charismatic Leadership - */S.Y\ A Permanent Creativity is the Best Quality for Leader with New Opportunities for Business. Charismatic Leadership as Function of Permanent Creativity .
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Ivon Prefontaine, PhD's curator insight, February 11, 2015 4:32 PM

This is an interesting article which will take some reading and re-reading to think about what the message is.

 

@ivon_ehd1

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How Thinking Like A Lawyer Made Me A Better Entrepreneur - Forbes

How Thinking Like A Lawyer Made Me A Better Entrepreneur - Forbes | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it
Lawyers, more so than MBAs, are taught how to think about problems in a way that anticipates both risk and change.

Via Skip Boykin
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My law school training has helped me develop an entrepreneurial mindset. I’m able to understand how my business needs to grow and what barriers might creep up.  -*/S.Y\  Creative Reflection determine your Capacity for Rethinking with New Mindset.
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Thinking outside the creative paradigm | The Media Online

Thinking outside the creative paradigm | The Media Online | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it

In 2010 the International IBM CEO survey came out with a surprise finding;it found creativity was the number one characteristic that businesses looked for in their leadership teams. That’s a big deal. As the ad industry we get excited quickly, but hold your horses! It’s not the same as putting our 20-something trained creatives at the front of the pitch. 

Creativity in the future of marketing and advertising is a far more intelligent form of creativity. If I had to let our industry down for a moment with one comment it would be this: our level of creativity is myopically focused on communication, and specific communication channels that we are ‘ok’ with. We’re ok with TV, press, and radio. We’re ok with design as communication, and very recently we became ok with digital platforms.

But are we ok with creativity for new business directions, expanded product offerings, and accessing data to uncover deep customer insights that lead to innovation? Are we ok with creativity for technology, creativity for HR, creativity for leadership matters, creativity for biofeuls? 

These latter forms of creativity need one thing that we are so reticent to do. They need us to think outside of our paradigms. Creative people don’t like to think outside of their creative boxes! That may sound like a contradiction in terms but it’s so real. I’ve worked with enough highly talented creative people over 20 years to know they can be brilliantly creative within their areas of communication expertise, and miserably uncreative when pushed outside of them.

So here’s the kicker: can our highly gifted creative people in the ad industry stretch their ability into new realms, because this is what business needs today and in the future?

Let’s call it multi-industry creativity. I believe the ad industry has the best grouping of employees to solve some of businesses biggest challenges, if only we are bold enough to tackle them, smart enough to learn again, resilient enough to push through our boundaries, and crazy enough to maybe, just maybe, tackle the forefront of where our 21st century marketplace is headed.

Strategically-led companies

Since the beginning of time (ok, just the ad industry timeline) our types of companies have been led by creative minds. Actually let me qualify that a little – I think there have been very insightful, even strategic, thinkers in all the most successful companies since the ’60s but they have never been referred to by any other classification except creative. So we have not had highly prized strategists until five or so years ago. 

The result of the past 40-50 years is that agencies and advertising as an industry have been creative-led. Creativity and creative awards are the heros in our companies. But here is the change heading into the next 40 years: we will see more and more strategic-led agencies and eventually we will start to breed strategists who love and value creativity. At the moment there is still a rub between strategists and creatives, which is a natural thing because a generation of strategists have not emerged who have worked long enough in creative environments to tune themselves into how creatives ‘work’.

So creatives do not really value strategists (I am generalising to make the point clear) but its true in most cases.

The demand for trained strategists will cause a new breed of agency person to emerge, not only in the rank and file, but at leadership levels. CEO’s who are strategy-led will in turn shift our entire industry towards this. These future-orientated advertising agencies will be known by another name. They will come out the ad industry, but they will rename this industry – to the alarm of the creatives.

What will these new companies be called, and what will our industry eventually become known as? I doubt it will be called the strat industry, but surely new names and titles will come to the fore that will add value to the global marketplace and breathe life into diverse companies and certainly…way beyond communication.


Via Charles Tiayon
Sergey Yatsenko's insight:
Let’s call it multi-industry creativity. I believe the ad industry has the best grouping of employees to solve some of businesses biggest challenges, if only we are bold enough to tackle them, smart enough to learn again, resilient enough to push through our boundaries, and crazy enough to maybe, just maybe, tackle the forefront of where our 21st century marketplace is headed.  -*/S.Y\  A Multi - Level Creativity is new KIND of TRUST.  Power up your Thinking with a Permanent Creativity .
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Charles Tiayon's curator insight, May 23, 2014 11:28 PM

In 2010 the International IBM CEO survey came out with a surprise finding;it found creativity was the number one characteristic that businesses looked for in their leadership teams. That’s a big deal. As the ad industry we get excited quickly, but hold your horses! It’s not the same as putting our 20-something trained creatives at the front of the pitch. 

Creativity in the future of marketing and advertising is a far more intelligent form of creativity. If I had to let our industry down for a moment with one comment it would be this: our level of creativity is myopically focused on communication, and specific communication channels that we are ‘ok’ with. We’re ok with TV, press, and radio. We’re ok with design as communication, and very recently we became ok with digital platforms.

But are we ok with creativity for new business directions, expanded product offerings, and accessing data to uncover deep customer insights that lead to innovation? Are we ok with creativity for technology, creativity for HR, creativity for leadership matters, creativity for biofeuls? 

These latter forms of creativity need one thing that we are so reticent to do. They need us to think outside of our paradigms. Creative people don’t like to think outside of their creative boxes! That may sound like a contradiction in terms but it’s so real. I’ve worked with enough highly talented creative people over 20 years to know they can be brilliantly creative within their areas of communication expertise, and miserably uncreative when pushed outside of them.

So here’s the kicker: can our highly gifted creative people in the ad industry stretch their ability into new realms, because this is what business needs today and in the future?

Let’s call it multi-industry creativity. I believe the ad industry has the best grouping of employees to solve some of businesses biggest challenges, if only we are bold enough to tackle them, smart enough to learn again, resilient enough to push through our boundaries, and crazy enough to maybe, just maybe, tackle the forefront of where our 21st century marketplace is headed.

Strategically-led companies

Since the beginning of time (ok, just the ad industry timeline) our types of companies have been led by creative minds. Actually let me qualify that a little – I think there have been very insightful, even strategic, thinkers in all the most successful companies since the ’60s but they have never been referred to by any other classification except creative. So we have not had highly prized strategists until five or so years ago. 

The result of the past 40-50 years is that agencies and advertising as an industry have been creative-led. Creativity and creative awards are the heros in our companies. But here is the change heading into the next 40 years: we will see more and more strategic-led agencies and eventually we will start to breed strategists who love and value creativity. At the moment there is still a rub between strategists and creatives, which is a natural thing because a generation of strategists have not emerged who have worked long enough in creative environments to tune themselves into how creatives ‘work’.

So creatives do not really value strategists (I am generalising to make the point clear) but its true in most cases.

The demand for trained strategists will cause a new breed of agency person to emerge, not only in the rank and file, but at leadership levels. CEO’s who are strategy-led will in turn shift our entire industry towards this. These future-orientated advertising agencies will be known by another name. They will come out the ad industry, but they will rename this industry – to the alarm of the creatives.

What will these new companies be called, and what will our industry eventually become known as? I doubt it will be called the strat industry, but surely new names and titles will come to the fore that will add value to the global marketplace and breathe life into diverse companies and certainly…way beyond communication.

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Five Questions on Creativity for … Todd Henry

Five Questions on Creativity for … Todd Henry | A New Paradigm of Development | Scoop.it

Consultant and author Todd Henry understands what it takes to “create-on-demand” in today’s fast-paced work environment. The founder and CEO of Accidental Creative, a consultancy that helps people and teams generate brilliant ideas, Henry is an expert on the dynamics of organizational creativity. He also develops insights on how individuals can unlock ideas and establish a personal rhythm that sustains creativity.


Via Anita
Sergey Yatsenko's insight:
When we develop our capacity to be creative using tools under the FRESH umbrella, we position ourselves to be able to respond when we need a new idea.  -  */S.Y\  Smart Tips. Many Faces of Constructivism. Look the Mirror of Thought Leader. You can Much Creativity on Demand.
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