Adiós a la factura de la luz: Tesla llegará a los hogares en seis meses Elon Musk ha vuelto a hacerlo: ahora promete una batería capaz de almacenar energía renovable que eliminará la dependencia de compañías eléctricas
Marshall beach, San Francisco I originally planned to shoot the bridge at the end of the beach but totally forgot to check the tide level. I ended up staying here and captured the tide motions instead.
A recent research collaboration between Moscow State University and here at the University of Iowa has discovered that crows exhibit strong behavioral signs of analogical reasoning—the ability to solve puzzles like “bird is to air as fish is to what?” Analogical reasoning is considered to be the pinnacle of cognition and it only develops in humans between the ages of three and four.
Devising a task to study analogical thinking in animals is the next step. Here, the gist of analogycan be captured by arranging a matching task in which the relevant logical arguments are presented in the form of visual stimuli. Using letters of the alphabet for explanatory purposes, choosing test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choosing test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Stated logically, A:A as B:B (same = same) and C:D as E:F (different = different). Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match any of the items in the sample pair; so, only the analogical relation of sameness can be used to solve the task. Early research suggested that only humans and apes can learn this analogy task; however, a more recent project indicated that baboons too can learn to select the pair of items that depicts the analogous same or different relationship as the sample pair.
Now, we have found that crows too can exhibit analogical thinking. Ed Wasserman, one of the authors of this article, and his colleagues in Moscow, Anna Smirnova, Zoya Zorina, and Tanya Obozova, first trained hooded crows on several tasks in which they had to match items that were the same as one another. The crows were presented with a tray containing three cups. The middle cup was covered by a card picturing a color, a shape, or a number of items. The other two side cups were also covered by cards—one the same as and one different from the middle card. The cup under the matching card contained food, but the cup under the nonmatching card was empty. Crows quickly learned to choose the matching card and to do so more quickly from one task to the next.
Then, the critical test was given. Each card now pictured a pair of items. The middle card would display pairs AA or CD, and the two side cards would display pair BB and pair EF. The relation between one pair of items must be appreciated and then applied to a new pair of items to generate the correct answer: the BB card in the case of AA or the EF card in the case of CD. For instance, if the middle card displayed a circle and a cross, then the correct choice would be the side card containing a square and a triangle rather than the side card containing two squares.
Not only could the crows correctly perform this task, but they did so spontaneously, from the very first presentations, without ever being trained to do so.
That's a lot of ground to cover. And it could be like watching paint dry. But not when it flies by in 60 seconds, with a groovy soundtrack by I-Konic. First come the arthropods. Next some friendly fish, all followed by land plants, flying insects, amphibians, and reptiles.
Un telescopio espacial europeo determinó por primera vez cuándo comenzaron a formarse las estrellas en el Universo. Según nuevos datos proporcionados por el satélite Planck se originaron más tarde de lo que se pensaba.
ballerina in the window by dbox, 432 Park avenue by Vik Tory I worked with Dbox in NYC for the #432ParkAvenue Project (as seen in NY Times, facebook posts, die kronenzeitung.....) (commercial for the 3.1 billion Dollar building-highest luxury apartment...
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