It’s not enough for students to merely listen to audio assignments. Students must use strategies that make them active, not passive, listeners. To understand the difference between active and passive listening, students need direct instruction on strategies that work (Vandergrift, 1999; Goh, 2008; Vandergrift & Tafaghodtari, 2010).
To accomplish this, teachers should use time in class to model effective strategies and evaluate students’ use of them. Students who use before-, during- and after-listening strategies develop skills that enable them to monitor their own metacognitive processes.